Business registers in EU countries

In Europe, business registers offer a range of services, which may vary from one Member State to another.

The core services provided by all registers are to register, examine and store company information, such as information on a company's legal form, its seat, capital and legal representatives, and to make this information available to the public.

To obtain detailed information on registers in Member States as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway please click on the flag of the relevant country listed on this page.

Last update: 03/10/2022

This page is maintained by the European Commission. The information on this page does not necessarily reflect the official position of the European Commission. The Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice with regard to copyright rules for European pages.

Business registers in Member States - International

The Business Register information is also available for the European Economic Area countries that are not EU Member States.

Norway

Iceland

Liechtenstein




Norway

The Brønnøysund Register Centre is a government body under Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries. The Register of Business Enterprise is one of the 14 national registers managed by the Brønnøysund Register Centre.

The business register is responsible for registering all Norwegian and foreign business enterprises in Norway. The register shall ensure legal protection and financial overview, and it is an important source for anyone who needs accurate information about the participants in Norwegian industry.

What does the Norwegian business register offer?

The Norwegian Register of Business Enterprises provides information on registered businesses. At the Brønnøysund Register Centre website you can access key information through our search engine. Information from the business register can be found in announcements, and you can order additional information and transcripts from the web shop and through European Business Register (EBR).

Key information:

  • Company organisation number
  • Company name, business address and other addresses
  • Company formation date
  • Company articles of associations and type of activity
  • Roles in the company
  • Bankruptcy information

Announcements:

The business register announces all major events for a company. It announces when a new company is registered, when important changes in a company have been registered, and the dissolution or striking off of a company. In the searchable database for announcements data is stored from November 1st 1999 and onwards. The Link opens in new windowEnglish-language version of announcements is available from August 2006.

Additional information that can be ordered for a fee is transcripts and certificates such as:

  • Certificate of registration
  • Annual accounts

Is access to the business register free of charge?

All key information that is accessible from our search engine and the information from the announcement database is free of charge. Some services as transcripts and certificates are subject to a fee.

How to search the Norwegian business register?

Basic information about the business enterprises registered in the business register is available at the Brønnøysund Register Centre Link opens in new windowweb site Searches can be done either on company name or organization number in the Link opens in new windowAnnouncements database.

To which extent can the documents in the register be relied upon?

Third parties can rely on the information in the Register of business Enterprises being the legally valid information about a company. The information registered is considered to have come to the attention of third parties. This applies both to the information itself and to the documents that are the grounds for registration. In practice this means that a third party should check the registered information about a company before doing business with it.

The rules regarding to which extent a third party can rely on information registered in the Register of Business Enterprises in Norway can be found in the Business Enterprises Registration Act section 10-1. A quick summary of the rules is that information registered is considered to have come to the attention of third parties.

A more detailed explanation is that for cases where a rule of law determines the legal position of a third party as to whether they were aware or not aware of a particular matter, the information registered in the Register of Business Enterprises is considered to have come to the attention of the third party.

For matters where notification of registration should have been sent to register (but has not been sent), and these matters are in contradiction to the information registered, then these matters cannot be brought to bear against a third party. An exception to this rule is the situation were the third party was aware of or should have been aware of the matter. In this situation the third party cannot justifiably claim that they could rely on the registered information.

History of the Norwegian business register

The Norwegian Register of Business Enterprises was established in 1988 and has carried on the functions of the nearly 100 former local trade registers.

Related links

Link opens in new windowThe Business Enterprises Registration Act in Norwegian

 



Iceland

What does the Icelandic business register offer?

The Register of Enterprises is a division within the Directorate of Internal Revenue since 2003 and operates a public file containing information about following entities:

  1. individuals, companies and other entities engaged in business
  2. institutions and state-owned companies
  3. institutions and companies owned by municipalities
  4. associations, organisations and entities, other than individuals, responsible for asset management or carry any tax obligations
  5. other activities the Internal Revenue/Register of Enterprises sees any reason to register in official file.

The register shall contain the following information about above-mentioned entities as applicable:

  1. Name
  2. Identification number, address
  3. Legal form
  4. The date of establishment
  5. Name, address and identification number of the executives
  6. Activity code (ISAT-nr.)
  7. Liquidation
  8. Other items which according to laws is necessary to register.

Upon registration the Register issues a unique identification number for the entity.

The Register of Enterprises provides public bodies, companies and individuals information from the register according to regulation set by the Minister regarding the scope of information and fees.

Is access to the business register free of charge?

Information about the name, address, legal form, ISAT code and VAT number are publicly available on the website of The Internal Revenue/Register of Enterprises free of charge.

Further information must be paid for and hopefully will be available from our web-store in the year 2016.

How to search the business register in Iceland?

On the web site of the Link opens in new windowDirectorate of Internal Revenue it is possible to search for information which is free of charge. Unfortunately it is only in Icelandic yet. For further information it is necessary to contact the office by phone or e-mail until the web store opens next year.

History of the Icelandic business registers.

Until 1980 companies were registered with the local commissioners throughout Iceland. In 1980 a special register for limited companies was set up but Statistics Iceland issued identification numbers for these companies. From 1997 all business companies other than unlimited partnerships were registered at The Register of Enterprises and from 2014 registration of partnerships is also takes place there so now we have only one official business register in Iceland, The Register of Enterprises.

 



Liechtenstein

A business register (Handelsregister) is held for the entire country of Liechtenstein. The business register is maintained by the Department of Justice (Amt für Justiz) in Vaduz.

The business register is a public register and is presumed to be accurate. Its principal objective is to ensure the legal certainty of commerce by disclosing legal relationships governed by private law, in particular the situations of natural and legal persons engaging in business when it comes to liability and authority to act.

What does the business register offer?

The business register contains information about all registered legal entities with their registered office in the Principality of Liechtenstein and about Liechtenstein trusts (Treuhänderschaften). The information covers facts and relationships some of which must be entered in the register by law and some of which are entered voluntarily, along with the relevant supporting documents.

Documents in respect of unregistered trusts are also lodged with the business register, as are data related to foundations (Stiftungen) that are not registered.

Is access to the business registers free of charge?

Access to the business register is subject to the payment of a fee.

Partial information on any of the legal entities registered in the business register and other legal information can be found free of charge in the register's business index (Firmenindex) via the link Link opens in new windowhttps://www.oera.li/cr-portal/suche/suche.xhtml, and a certified full statement can be ordered for a fee via the same link.

How to search the business register in Liechtestein?

The business register, including notifications and supporting documents, is public.

The business index (Firmenindex) can be used to search for a registered legal entity using its name or commercial name or its register number.

To which extent can the information in the registers be relied upon?

Article 3a of Directive 2009/101/EC, as amended by Directive 2012/17/EU, requires Member States to give information explaining the provisions of national law according to which third parties can rely on the company documents and particulars referred to in Article 2. The Decision of the EEA Joint Committee of 8 October 2013 states that Directive 2012/17/EU is to be incorporated into the EEA Agreement.

Except where the legislation provides that only partial publication or publication of extracts is required, entries in the business register are published by the Department of Justice in the official gazette in full and without delay (Article 956(1) of the Persons and Companies Act (Personen- und Gesellschaftsrecht, PGR)). The official publication of the Principality of Liechtenstein is the electronic official gazette (Amtsblatt) (Article 16 of the Publication Act (Kundmachungsgesetz).

Entries, amendments and deletions in the business register may be relied upon by any person acting in good faith. The content of the entry, amendment or deletion may be relied upon against the party registered provided it was submitted at that party’s wish (Article 948(1) and (2) PGR).

With regard to third parties, an entry in the business register is effective on the day after the day on which the entry is published, always provided that there is a legal requirement for publication (Article 947(2) PGR).

Under Article 949 PGR, entry in the business register has the effect of disclosure, and once registration has taken effect with respect to third parties a person is no longer entitled to object that they were unaware of the entry. However, if there was a requirement that a particular fact must be registered, and that fact was not registered, it can be relied upon against a third party only if it can be proven that the third party was aware of it.

History of the business register

The data in the Liechtenstein business register were originally recorded on index cards. All the current data, as well as a large proportion of the historical data, are now available electronically.

Additional information

Entries in the business register are published in the legally required format in the electronic gazette, and may be relied upon by third parties only with effect from the day after the day on which they are published. In the event of any discrepancy between the entry in the register and the information published, the entry in the register takes precedence.

Publication and effect of entries in the business register

Public naturs of the busines register

The business register, including notifications and supporting documents, is public. Entries can be accessed by anyone. Documents in the register concerning public limited companies (Aktiengesellschaften), limited partnerships (Kommanditaktiengesellschaften) and private limited companies (Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung) can be accessed without restriction; for bodies with other legal forms, the inquirer must prove a legitimate interest (Article 953 PGR).

Publication of entries

Except where the legislation provides that only partial publication or publication of extracts is required, entries in the business register are published by the Department of Justice in the official gazette in full and without delay. All documents and particulars that must by law be lodged and published are published in the same way (Article 956 et seq. PGR). The information published can be relied upon directly against anyone from the end of the day on which it is published.

Notices concerning public limited companies (Aktiengesellschaften), limited partnerships (Kommanditaktiengesellschaften) and private limited companies (Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung) take the form of a reference published in the official gazette to the entry and to the supporting documents and particulars. The same applies in the case of any legal person carrying on a trade in a commercial fashion. In other cases notices take the form of a reference to the entry in the register (Article 957 PGR).

Effectiveness of entries in dealings with third parties

With regard to third parties, an entry in the business register is effective on the day after the day on which the entry was published, always provided there is a legal requirement for publication (Article 947(2) PGR).

In the case of public limited companies (Aktiengesellschaften), limited partnerships (Kommanditaktiengesellschaften) and private limited companies (Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung) a fact that has been registered and published cannot be relied upon against a third party if it relates to a legal transaction that is carried out within fifteen days after the date on which the entry becomes effective and the third party can prove that they were not aware of it and could not have been expected to be aware of it (Article 949(1a) PGR).

Once registration has taken effect with respect to third parties, a person is no longer entitled to object that they were unaware of the entry (Article 949(1) PGR).

Entries in the business register constitute full evidence of the facts they attest unless it is shown that they are incorrect (Article 949(3) PGR).

Discrepencies between entry as submitted and as published

If there is a discrepancy between the entry in the register and the information published, the entry in the register takes precedence, and then the information published, and finally the content of the supporting documents. In the event of a discrepancy between an entry in the register and the information published, third parties acting in good faith can also rely on the information published against the party for whom the entry was made (Article 959(2) and (3) PGR).

Related links

Link opens in new windowPersons and Companies Act (Personen- und Gesellschaftsrecht, PGR) of 20 January 1926 (published LGBl. 1926 No 4)

Link opens in new windowPublication Act (Kundmachungsgesetz) of 17 April 1985 (published LGBl. 1985 No 41)

Link opens in new windowOfficial Gazette Regulation (Amtsblattverordnung ) of 4 September 2012 (published LGBl. 2012 No 284)

Last update: 20/05/2019

This page is maintained by the European Commission. The information on this page does not necessarily reflect the official position of the European Commission. The Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice with regard to copyright rules for European pages.

Business registers in Member States - Belgium

This section gives an overview of the Belgian business register.

What does the Belgian business register offer?

The Belgian business register, the Business Hub Database (French Banque-Carrefour des Entreprises (BCE), Dutch Kruispunktbank van Ondernemingen (KBO)), is managed by an office in the Link opens in new windowFederal Department of the Economy. The register was created in order to simplify administration and provide a way of identifying businesses unambiguously. The database covers all enterprises, and the law requires all enterprises to register. It also lists businesses’ establishments (or ‘establishment units’): these are the addresses where - or from where - the business conducts its operations. The database also provides links to other databases. It covers not just businesses but other legal persons too. Sole traders, public bodies, and in some cases foreign businesses, are all included.

Is it free of charge to access the Belgian business register?

Everyone can consult the public data concerning businesses free of charge, using the online ‘Public Search’ function.

This search engine makes it possible to search for businesses or establishments using various search criteria. An ‘Open Data’ file is also available free of charge: this can be reused by any interested person provided they register. The ‘Public Search’ function makes it possible to include a large part of the public data in the user’s own applications. However, this latter service is provided for a fee.

How can I search the Belgian business register?

The ‘Public Search’ function allows you to search data on all businesses, whether they are currently active or whether they have ceased trading, and whether they are legal persons or sole traders, and on their establishments.

What data can be found?

At the level of the enterprise:

  1. enterprise registration number
  2. status
  3. legal situation
  4. start date
  5. name
  6. address of head office
  7. telephone number
  8. fax
  9. email‑
  10. website
  11. legal form of the enterprise
  12. number of establishments
  13. officers
  14. professional skills and basic management knowledge for which evidence has been supplied
  15. qualities
  16. authorisations
  17. activities for purposes of VAT and social security
  18. financial information
  19. links with other businesses
  20. External links (official gazette (Moniteur belge/Belgisch Staatsblad)), 
    central bank (Banque nationale de Belgique/Nationale Bank van België),
    and the register of employers kept by the social security office (ONSS/RSZ)

At the level of the individual establishment:

  1. enterprise registration number
  2. status
  3. number of establishment
  4. start date
  5. name of establishment
  6. address
  7. telephone number
  8. fax
  9. email
  10. website
  11. authorisations
  12. Activities for social security purposes and commercial and non-commercial activities

How reliable is the data in the register?

Companies are required to disclose certain information and documents. The purpose is particularly to ensure that these things can be relied upon in dealings with third parties. In Belgium, such information has to be published in the official gazette; annual accounts have to be published via the Central Balance Sheet Office (Centrale des bilans/Balanscentrale) at the central bank. Article 76 of the Companies Code sets out the rules governing when documents and information can be relied upon after disclosure.

Article 76 of the Companies Code stipulates that documents and information that have to be disclosed have effects vis-à-vis third parties only from the date on which they are published in extract form or reported in the annexes to the official gazette, unless the company can demonstrate that these third parties were aware of them earlier.

Third parties may nevertheless rely upon documents that have not been published.

Where a transaction takes place before the 16th day following the date of publication, it has no effect vis-à-vis third parties who can demonstrate that they had no way of knowing about it.

In the event of a discrepancy between the text that was filed and the text that was published in the annexes to the official gazette, the text published cannot be relied upon against third parties. However, third parties themselves may invoke it, unless the company can demonstrate that they were in fact aware of the text that was filed.

In the event of a discrepancy between documents that must be filed in an official language of the country and translations into one or more official languages of the European Union that are filed voluntarily, the translations published voluntarily cannot be relied upon against third parties. But third parties may rely upon such voluntarily published translations, unless the company can show that they were aware of the version referred to in Article 67(1)(2) of the Companies Code, which refers to certified copies of authentic documents, duplicates or originals of private deeds, and statements that must be filed, in electronic form or not, with the registry of the commercial court.

The information regarding enterprises that is accessible via the ‘Public Search’ function includes direct links to the notice published in the official gazette and to the central bank’s Central Balance Sheet Office.

How to search

This link will take you to the Link opens in new windowPublic Search function:

There are four different search options, separated by tabs:

  • search by number (if you know the enterprise registration number or the number of the establishment)
  • search by name
  • search by address
  • search by activity

The internet site is available in four languages: English, Dutch, French and German.

You will find general information on the Business Hub Database through the website of the Link opens in new windowFederal Department of the Economy (in the section ‘Enterprises & Self-Employed’ (Entreprises & Indépendants/Ondernemingen & Zelfstandigen), under the heading Banque-Carrefour des Entreprises/Kruispuntbank van Ondernemingen.

Related links

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register ; Link opens in new windowFederal Department of Justice; Link opens in new windowFederal Department of the Economy, SMEs, the Self-Employed and Energy

Last update: 18/01/2017

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Bulgaria

This section provides an overview of Bulgaria's business registers and the BULSTAT register. Bulgaria guarantees that these registers comply with the principles of publicity, transparency and security of information.

What does the Bulgarian business register provide?

Link opens in new windowThe Bulgarian business register / register of non-profit legal entities (ТРРЮЛНЦ - TRRYULNTs) is administered by the Registry Agency attached to the Ministry of Justice. Registered in the TRRYULNTs are traders, branches of foreign traders, non-profit legal entities and branches of non-profit legal entities, along with the particulars on them that are required by law to be registered. Also contained in the TRRYULNTS are the documents that are required by law to be kept available for public inspection relating to traders and foreign traders’ branches, non-profit legal entities and branches of foreign non-profit legal entities

The business register and the register of non-profit legal entities share a common electronic database containing the particulars that are required by law to be registered and the documents that are required by law to be kept available for public inspection relating to traders, foreign traders' branches, non-profit legal entities and branches of foreign non-profit legal entities. Files on traders, foreign traders’ branches, non-profit legal entities and branches of foreign non-profit legal entities are kept in electronic form. The files contain applications, documents substantiating the particulars registered, disclosures and other documents, which may also contain personal data identifying individuals representing or managing the trader or non-profit legal entity concerned.

Is access to the Bulgarian business register free of charge?

The business register and the register of non-profit legal entities are in the public domain. Access to the registers’ database is open to everyone free of charge. The Registry Agency provides registered access to the file of the trader or non-profit legal entity. Such access may be provided at the Agency’s local offices upon submission of an application and production of an identity document. Persons requesting electronic access must identify themselves by means of an electronic signature or a digital certificate issued by the Agency; official access is provided under the procedure laid down in a special regulation. The Registry Agency also provides free and open access to particulars and documents through the Business Registers Interconnection System.

How to search the Bulgarian business register.

The business register is accessible 24 hours a day Link opens in new windowhere.

Anyone may search the business register and the non-profit legal entities register for a given particular or document.

On the TRRYULNTs portal, searches can be conducted using the following criteria:

  • business name/name or Unique Identification Code (UIC) of trader or foreign trader’s branch, non-profit legal entity or branch of foreign non-profit legal entity; names or ID number, or business name or UIC of partner or sole owner of capital.
  • names or ID number, or business name or UIC of a member of the bodies of a legal entity - trader or non-profit legal entity. The file of a trader, branch of a foreign trader, non-profit legal entity or branch of a foreign non-profit legal entity and its officers and legal successors may be searched by particular or document.

It is also possible for users to search the entire TRRYULNTs database according to their own specific criteria. The fee for searching the entire database is BGN 100 per year (as per schedule of State fees collected by the Registration Agency); for public authorities such access to the database is free of charge.

Certificates can be issued both over the counter at the Registration Agency and electronically (fees are collected in accordance with the schedule of State fees collected by the Registration Agency).

Copies of documents kept in the register may be issued, either over the counter or electronically (fees are collected in accordance with the schedule of State fees collected by the Registration Agency).

To what extent can the documents in the register be relied upon?

Bulgaria has adopted the principles set out in relevant EU legislation governing the validity of entry or deletion of particulars and publication of documents relating to traders/non-profit legal entities. The specific arrangements at national level are laid down in the Act on the Business Register and the Register of Non-Profit Legal Entities (ZTRRYULNTs) and the Commerce Act.

Under the former, a particular entered in the register is deemed, as from time of entry, to have become known to third parties acting in good faith. Until 15 days have expired after an entry has been made, it may not be relied on against third parties who prove that it was impossible for them to have been aware of it. Third parties may cite a particular that is to be registered even though the entry has not yet been made, unless the law specifically provides that it becomes effective only after entry. Once deleted, an entry is ineffective. Documents in the TRRYULNTs are deemed to have become known to third parties from the date they are posted.

Third parties acting in good faith may cite an entry or posting, even if the particular entered or document posted does not exist. In relation to third parties acting in good faith, particulars not entered in the register are deemed to be non-existent.

History of the Bulgarian business register and the register of non-profit legal entities

A reform of the registration process began on 1 January 2008, when the Business Register Act entered into force and an electronic register of traders and foreign traders’ branches became operational. Traders were to re-register by 31 December 2011.

Under Article 17 of the Non-Profit Legal Entities Act, as of 1 January 2018 the Registry Agency maintains the register of non-profit legal entities. § 25(1) of the Transitional and Final Provisions of the Non-Profit Legal Entities Act provides that non-profit legal entities entered in the register of non-profit legal entities at the provincial courts have the option to submit a re-registration application at the Registry Agency by 31 December 2020. The two registers share the same database.

Results of the reform:

  1. The registration process was transferred from the courts to a central government administrative body: the Registry Agency.
  2. All registers of the 28 provincial courts were consolidated into a single centralised electronic database. The database contains the particulars that are required to be registered and documents required to be kept available for public inspection, as well as electronic versions of all documents submitted, refusals issued, instructions issued and company files.
  3. The principle of publicity of information is of fundamental importance in the registration procedure.
  4. The registration procedure is carried out using various kinds of application forms. The type of application depends on the type of trader or non-profit legal entity and the particulars that are to be entered.

How to submit applications to the business register

Applications may be submitted either over the counter at any Registry Agency office or electronically via the Link opens in new windowTRRYULNTs portal.

Hard-copy applications may be lodged at any local office of the Registry Agency, irrespective of where the trader is based. Once accepted by the Agency's offices, hard-copy applications are scanned and stored as attachments in the TRRYULNTs computer system. Documents attached as annexes to applications must be originals or copies certified by the applicant or by a notary public.

Electronic applications may be submitted at any time via the TRRYULNTs portal.

How are submitted applications reviewed?

Each item received for entry in the TRRYULNTs computer system (application, court decision, request for correction of an error, request for appointment of experts, verifiers, controllers, etc.) is given a unique reference number in the format 'yyyymmddhhmmss' (year, month, day, hour, minute, second). Once an application, court decision or request has received its unique reference number, it is then randomly allocated by the TRRYULNTs computer system to a registration official for examination. Applications for entry or deletion or for the posting of documents under Article 14 are automatically allocated, in order of receipt, as soon as a registration official has electronically signed off the previously allocated application and is accordingly recognised by the computer system as being available.

Pursuant to Article 19(2) of the Act on the Business Register and the Register of Non-Profit Legal Entities (ZTRRYULNTs), the registration official issues a decision on applications for registration or deletion and applications for the posting of a document immediately upon expiry of three working days after their receipt, unless the law provides otherwise. First-time-registration applications of traders are examined by the end of the working day following the day of their submission to the business register, and a decision is issued immediately upon examination of the application, except in the cases referred to in Article 22(5) ZTRRYULNTs, where an instruction is issued. Applications to post annual financial statements and reports, where required by law, are examined separately from other applications in the order received.

Depending on the type of decision, the outcomes may be as follows:

  • instructions electronically signed by the registration official on completion of examination of the particular application and published immediately in the trader's account - to be implemented within the time limit provided for in Article 19(2) ZTRRYULNTs;
  • a refusal, electronically signed by the registration official on completion of examination and published immediately in the trader's account;
  • a registration order, electronically signed by the registration official upon completion of examination, which up to expiry of the time limit provided for in Article 19(2) ZTRRYULNTs is displayed in the trader's account as having the status 'awaiting three-day time limit'. After expiry of this statutory time limit, the TRRYULNTs computer system automatically makes the entry and generates the entry number in the format specified above. The year, month and day are those of automatic publication by the computer system, while the hour, minute and second record the time at which registration was ordered by the registration official the previous day.

What does Bulgaria's BULSTAT register provide?

The Link opens in new windowBULSTAT register contains information on:

  1. legal entities other than traders or non-profit legal entities within the meaning of the Non-Profit Legal Entities Act which are required to register in the business register or non-profit legal entities register;
  2. branches of foreign entities which are not traders or non-profit legal entities;
  3. agencies of foreign entities under Article 24 of the Investment Promotion Act;
  4. foreign legal entities engaged in business activity in Bulgaria and having a permanent establishment, base or facility, there;
  5. foreign legal entities whose effective place of management is in Bulgaria;
  6. foreign legal entities owning real estate in Bulgaria;
  7. pledgors within the meaning of the Registered Pledges Act;
  8. organisational units under the Obligations and Contracts Act, including craft undertakings and insurance associations under Article 8 of the Social Security Code;
  9. entities which are social insurance contributors and are not natural persons;
  10. branches and divisions of entities and divisions of traders entered in the business register;
  11. natural persons exercising a liberal profession or working as tradespersons;
  12. foreign citizens who do not have a Bulgarian personal identity number or a foreign resident identity number and who:
    • provide independent personal services in Bulgaria, including through a permanent establishment, base or facility;
    • acquire real estate;
    • are social insurance contributors;
  13. other natural persons – social insurance contributors;
  14. foreign persons/entities subject to special registration under tax law, including where exempt from tax under an international agreement which has entered into force and to which the Republic of Bulgaria is a party;
  15. Natural and legal persons and other legal entities active in the Republic of Bulgaria in their capacity as trustees of trusts or custodial funds and other similar foreign legal entities established and existing under jurisdictions allowing such forms of trusts.

Is access to the BULSTAT register free of charge?

Information entered in the Link opens in new windowBULSTAT register on the basis of documents submitted to provide the data referred to under Article 7(1), points 1 to 7 and point 19, and Article 7(9) of the BULSTAT Register Act is in the public domain. Anyone may search for a given particular.

History of the BULSTAT register

The BULSTAT register was set up on the basis of the register of business entities (RSS EKPOU) maintained at the National Statistical Institute, in accordance with Article 6(7) of the Statistics Act. By Council of Ministers’ Decree No 206 of 30 October 1995, rules for the creation of the register were adopted. The unified State register of business entities, 'BULSTAT', became operational in the Republic of Bulgaria on 1 January 1996. By Council of Ministers’ Decision No 379 of 30 July 1998, the identification code in the unified State register of business entities was adopted as a Unique Identification Code (UIC) for all legal and other entities engaged in business activities in Bulgaria. On 17 June 1999, the National Assembly adopted the Statistics Act. This Act stipulated the method for the setting-up, functioning and use of the BULSTAT unified register for the identification of operators engaged in business activities on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria. The BULSTAT register developed into one of the country's main administrative registers, and in 2000 its data were made available via the Link opens in new windowregister’s website.

On 11 August 2005 management of the BULSTAT register was transferred to the Registration Agency. It contains the registrations for all legal entities and branches of foreign entities other than traders or non-profit legal entities within the meaning of the Non-Profit Legal Entities Act which are required to register in the business register or the register of non-profit legal entities. Persons exercising a liberal profession or working as tradespersons are also required to register. Up to 1 January 2008, traders were obliged to register in BULSTAT within seven days; thereafter, this came under the purview of the business register.

How to submit applications to the BULSTAT register

Entries and deletions are made on the basis of an application submitted using a standard form.

Applications may be submitted either over the counter at any Registry Agency office or electronically via the Link opens in new windowBULSTAT portal.

Hard-copy applications may be lodged at any local office of the Registry Agency, irrespective of where the entity is based. Once accepted by the Agency's offices, hard-copy applications are scanned and stored as attachments in the BULSTAT register's computer system. Documents attached as annexes to applications must be originals or copies certified by the applicant or by a notary public.

Electronic applications may be submitted at any time via the BULSTAT register portal.

Depending on their status, entities seeking to register with BULSTAT must provide:

  1. a copy of a court decision or other document as follows:
    (a) legal entities: founding document and document specifying the natural person managing and/or representing the entity;
    (b) agencies of foreign entities under Article 24 of the Investment Promotion Act: document certifying registration with the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BCCI);
    (c) foreign legal entities: document attesting to the conduct of business activities in Bulgaria; legalised document attesting to the origin of foreign legal entities in the country concerned;
    (d) organisational units without legal personality under the Obligations and Contracts Act and insurance funds under Article 8 of the Social Security Code: company contract and certificate of registration with the National Revenue Agency;
    (e) branches and divisions: document certifying their establishment and specifying the person managing and/or representing them;
    (f) entities other than those referred to under (a) to (e) that are social insurance contributors: documents proving identity and/or that a specific activity is being carried out, where required by law.
  2. application on standard form approved by the Executive Director of the Registry Agency;
  3. statement attesting to the veracity of the particulars declared, signed by the applicant;
  4. a document proving payment of a State fee under the schedule approved by the Council of Ministers.

Each item received for entry in the register's computer system (application or correction request) is given a unique reference number in the format 'yyyymmddhhmmss' (year, month, day, hour, minute, second).

Applications and requests for entry or deletion are examined by a registration official, in order of receipt. The registration official issues a decision on applications and requests for entry or deletion by close of business on the day following the day of receipt.

Depending on the type of decision, the outcomes may be as follows:

  • instructions, electronically signed by the registration official on completion of examination of the application concerned and published immediately in the trader's account - to be implemented within 5 working days;
  • a refusal, electronically signed by the registration official on completion of examination and published immediately in the entity's electronic account;
  • a registration order, electronically signed by the registration official upon completion of examination. After the entry is made, the BULSTAT computer system automatically generates the entry number in the format specified above. The year, month and day are those of automatic publication by the computer system, while the hour, minute and second record the time at which registration was ordered by the registration official.

The register can be searched online by:

  • name or UIC/ID number of the entity;
  • company file/year/provincial court;
  • application number, entry number;
  • linkage between entities.
Last update: 10/05/2021

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Czech Republic

In this section you will find an overview of the public register in the Czech Republic. The Register of Associations, Commercial Register, Foundation Register, Register of Institutions, Register of Unit Owner Associations and Register of Public Benefit Associations form part of the public register.

What information does the Czech public register offer?

The public register records statutory information concerning legal persons governed by private law. General rules governing public registers are set out in Section 120 of Act No 89/2012, the Civil Code. More detailed rules governing the public register kept by the courts are set out in Act No 304/2013 on public registers of legal and natural persons. Part of the public register is a document registry (where statutory documents are stored, e.g. articles of association, statutes, financial statements, etc.).

The public register is kept by the registration court. The public register is administered by the Ministry of Justice.

The following entities are entered in the public register:

  • Associations
  • Trade unions
  • International trade unions
  • Employers’ organisations
  • International employers’ organisations
  • Branch associations
  • Branch trade union organisations
  • Branch international trade union organisations
  • Branch employers’ organisations
  • Branch international employers’ organisations
  • Sole traders — entered in the commercial register
  • Public trading companies (partnerships)
  • Limited partnerships
  • Limited liability companies
  • Joint stock companies
  • Cooperatives
  • State enterprises
  • Spin-off enterprises
  • Public-benefit associations
  • Foundations
  • Endowments
  • Institutes
  • State-funded organisations
  • Associations of unit owners
  • European Economic Interest Groupings
  • Establishments owned by foreign persons
  • European Cooperative Societies
  • European companies

The information entered in the public register is set out in Act No 304/2013 on public registers of legal and natural persons. The basic information to be entered is principally: name or business name, registered office, activity or business, legal form, identification number, name and address or business name and registered office of the person who is the statutory body.

Is access to the Czech public register free of charge?

The public register is kept in electronic format. It is available to the public free of charge via the Link opens in new windowweb portal and/or directly on the Link opens in new windowpublic register search page. The public register is accessible to all. Anyone may consult it and make copies or take extracts from it.

How to search the Czech public register

The Czech public register has an advanced online information search application. The register can be searched by entity name or by identification number.

How reliable are the documents in the register?

Disclosure of the documents

The registration court posts public register entries, amendments and deletions, and the deposition of documents, including those in electronic format, as soon as possible after entry. Data entered in the public register and documents deposited in the document registry are posted in a manner permitting remote access. The registration court posts the data in question and makes it possible to obtain an officially certified electronic copy. This document is signed electronically using a qualified system certificate from the relevant registration court and is available free of charge on the Link opens in new windowMinistry of Justice website (Ministerstva spravedlnosti ČR). On request, the registration court issues a certified true partial or full copy of the entry or of the documents deposited in the document registry or a certificate confirming that an item of data is not in the public register, unless the applicant specifically requests a non-certified copy. The registration court issues only hard copies of particulars entered in the public register and documents deposited in the document registry before 1 January 1997, unless records of these facts or documents are already kept in electronic form.

Reliance on documents and data

The person to whom an entry relates does not have the right to object that the entry does not correspond to reality against a person acting legally and in good faith on the basis of the entry.

Where the publication of data and document content is required by law, a registered person can rely on that data or document content in their dealings with third parties only from the date of original publication, unless it can be shown that it was previously known to the third party. However, the registered person may not rely on such data and document content in the case of actions conducted before the sixteenth day following publication, if the third party demonstrates that it could not have known about them.

Third parties may always rely on unpublished data and document content unless non-publication renders them null and void.

Non-compliance of registered information

If the content of the entry in the public register is contrary to a mandatory provision of the Act and if there is no other possibility of obtaining redress, the registration court invites the registered person to obtain redress. In the case of a legal person, where redress is not obtained within the prescribed period the court may of its own motion issue a decision to liquidate, if such an action is in the interests of protecting third parties.

If there is a discrepancy between the wording of an entry in the public register in Czech and a foreign language or of documents stored in the registry in Czech and a voluntarily deposited translation of those documents into a foreign language under Section 74(1) of the Act on public registers of legal and natural persons, the wording of the document published or deposited in the registry in a foreign language may not be relied upon in respect of third parties. A third party may rely on the wording of a document published or deposited in the registry in a foreign language, unless the registered person proves that the third party was aware of the wording of the content of the entry or document deposited in Czech.

Translation of the Public Registers Act

The Ministry of Justice has drawn up an unofficial English translation of Act No 304/2013 on public registers of legal and natural persons and on the registration of trusts, in the version in force from 1 January 2018. The translation is only for information purposes; only the Czech text published in the Collection of Legislative Acts is authentic. Available Link opens in new windowhere.

Last update: 15/06/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Denmark

This section presents an overview of Denmark’s business register.

The Danish Business Authority (Erhvervsstyrelsen)

History of the Danish Business Register

The Danish Business Authority was established on 1 January 2012.

It has approximately 500 employees. It has a broad portfolio of tasks and responsibilities, which overall should make it easier and more attractive to do business in Denmark. The Business Authority operates in many fields - from planning law and rural development to digitisation, effective supervision and monitoring of funds, companies, money laundering, accounting, auditing, export and EU checks. It is responsible for the Central Business Register (CVR), which is the state’s main register for information on all Danish companies.

The Business Authority is part of the Danish Ministry of Business and Growth (Erhvervsministeriet).

What does the Danish Business Register offer?

On erhvervsstyrelsen.dk, you can find information on all the Authority’s areas of work, including the Danish Business Register CVR.dk.

CVR.dk on the Virk portal is the centralised entry point for information and data on all businesses in Denmark. Regardless of the type of business, you can find information on both the business itself (also known as the legal entity) and its production units. The Register also provides information on founders, owners and managers.

For certain types of business – in particular public limited-liability companies and private limited-liability companies – you can find more information: accounts, facts and reports on the business and the people who manage it.

What information does the Central Business Register contain:

  • The company’s registration (CVR) number
  • Name and address
  • Date of establishment and winding-up where appropriate
  • Type of business
  • Indication of advertising protection where appropriate
  • Credit information
  • Sector and sub-sectors where appropriate
  • Contact information where appropriate
  • Number of employees where appropriate
  • Fully liable partners, founders, owners and managers
    • Name and address
    • Registration (CPR or CVR) number (CPR numbers cannot be passed on to private individuals)
  • Associated production units
    • Production unit number
    • Name and address
    • Date of establishment and winding-up where appropriate
    • Indication of advertising protection where appropriate
    • Sector and sub-sectors where appropriate
    • Contact information where appropriate
    • Number of employees where appropriate

How do I search the Danish Business Register?

In CVR on Virk, you can carry out individual company searches and search/filter on the basis of a whole series of parameters, such as company name, name of a person, company registration number, production unit number, address of company, production unit or person. You can find basic data on all companies registered in the Central Business Register.

On the page Link opens in new windowSådan søger du in CVR-Data you can find help to search for company information in the Central Business Register.

A number of solutions are available for larger quantities of data from the Central Business Register, such as ‘system-to-system access’ and ‘CVR webservices’. Link opens in new windowClick here for more information.

Is it free of charge to access the Danish Business Register?

Documents and services from the Central Business Register which do not require manual processing are free of charge. These are:

  • Various displays
  • Accounts
  • System-to-system access and CVR webservices

A number of documents require manual processing and are subsequently invoiced. However, the products are exempt from VAT:

  • Added signature: DKK 120
  • Older accounts on microfilm or from remote archives: DKK 300
  • Registration certificate: DKK 300
  • Change of name certificate: DKK 500
  • Merger plan: DKK 150
  • Minutes of annual general meeting: DKK 150
  • Documentation on capital: DKK 150
  • Copy of registration form: DKK 150
  • Management statement: DKK 150
  • Report on subsequent acquisitions: DKK 150
  • Report on self-financing DKK 150
  • Demerger plan: DKK 150
  • Articles of association: DKK 150

These prices are valid from 5 December 2014.

How reliable are the documents in the register?

Section 14 of the Companies Act transposes Article 3 of the First Company Law Directive into Danish company law, and describes how the records can be relied upon. Section 14 of the Companies Act states:

‘It is considered that information published on the Danish Business Authority’s IT system has come to the knowledge of third parties. Point 1. However this does not apply to transactions carried out within 16 days of being made public, provided it is shown that a third party could not have had knowledge of the circumstances that were made public.

As long as they have not been published on the Danish Business Authority’s IT system, the circumstances that are to be registered and made public cannot be enforced against third parties, unless it is shown that the third parties had knowledge of them. The fact that circumstances of this kind have not yet been made public does not prevent a third party from proceeding on the basis of them.’

Responsibility for the accuracy of the records

The notifier is responsible for the accuracy of the reported information, see Section 8 of the Notification Order (anmeldelsesbekendtgørelsen), and Section 15(2) of the Companies Act. The notifier may be criminally liable if the notification was not lawfully made, or if the reported information is incorrect.

The Danish Business Authority does not verify the accuracy of the reported information, but records the information that is reported to it. This is the case regardless of whether what is at issue is a manual registration or a self-registration conducted on Virk.dk.

The Danish Business Authority may be liable for damages for use of reported information or documents that are incorrect due to a management factor, such as a processing error.

Related Links

Link opens in new windowDanish Business Authority

Link opens in new windowCentral Business Register

Link opens in new windowThe Danish Ministry for Business and Growth

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register (EBR)

Last update: 04/05/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Germany

This page provides an overview of Germany’s Company Register (Unternehmensregister).

History of the national register

When was it founded? When was it digitised?

The Commercial Register in its current form was established in 1861 and has been fully digitised since 1 January 2007. The Link opens in new windowRegister Portal provides centralised access to locally run commercial, cooperative, partnership and association registers and register notices.

On 1 January 2007, the Link opens in new windowCompany Register was created as a single digital information portal through which, alongside the entries in the above-mentioned registers, additional company information such as accounting records and financial reports, company law notices and notices of insolvency courts, and capital market information can be accessed.

What is the current applicable legislation?

The provisions on the Commercial and Company Register are set out in Sections 8-16 of the Commercial Code (Handelsgesetzbuch, HGB) and in the Commercial Register Regulation (Handelsregisterverordnung, HRV) and the Company Register Regulation (Unternehmensregisterverordnung, URV) and are supplemented by Sections 1 ff. and 376 ff. of the Act on Procedure in Family Matters and Non-Contentious Matters (Gesetz über das Verfahren in Familiensachen und in den Angelegenheiten der freiwilligen Gerichtsbarkeit, FamFG). In addition, a large number of individual laws, in particular the HGB, the Public Limited Companies Act (Aktiengesetz, AktG) and the Conversion Act (Umwandlungsgesetz, UmwG), regulate the information that may and must be entered in the Commercial Register.

What information is entered in the Company Register?

Who has the right to access the Register?

Anyone can consult the Commercial and Company Register without having to prove any particular interest.

What information is entered in the Register?

What categories of data are stored (which companies are recorded in the public register, insolvency information, financial statements)?

Depending on their legal form, companies are recorded in different registers. The Commercial Register includes, in particular, sole traders, commercial partnerships (general partnerships (Offene Handelsgesellschaften, OHG), limited partnerships (Kommanditgesellschaften, KG)) and capital companies (limited liability companies (Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung, GmbH), joint-stock companies (Aktiengesellschaften, AG), limited joint-stock partnerships (Kommanditgesellschaften auf Aktien, KGaA) and European companies (Europäische Gesellschaften, SE)). Cooperatives (Genossenschaften, eG) and European Cooperatives (Europäische Genossenschaften, SCE) are recorded in the Cooperative Societies Register (Genossenschaftsregister) and Registered Partnerships (Partnerschaftsgesellschaften, PartG) in the Partnerships Register (Partnerschaftsregister). The provisions relating to the Commercial Register apply mutatis mutandis to these registers.

Important facts and legal relationships of companies are recorded in the registers. These relate in particular to the existence of a company, i.e. its creation and termination (e.g. by dissolution, liquidation, or liquidation and cancellation), its representation, i.e. the persons entitled to represent it such as managing directors (GmbH), members of the board of directors (AG) and procurators, including their appointment and termination, the extent of the power of representation (e.g. representation alone or only jointly with another authorised representative), the company’s liability (in particular the amount and changes to the amount of the liability, unless liability is unlimited) and changes of partners in the GmbH. The information which must be entered varies according to the legal form of the company.

However, accounting documents such as annual accounts and other company notices are not registered in the Commercial Register, but published in the Federal Gazette. These documents, as well as capital market information and other information, in particular insolvency notices, can also be accessed in the Company Register. From 1 August 2022, accounting documents will no longer be published in the Federal Gazette, but rather in the Company Register.

Which documents are filed/stored (files, companies’ accounts, articles of association, minutes of meetings)?

The Commercial Register records the documents on which the entries are based, such as registration applications, partnership and conversion contracts and articles of association for capital companies, minutes of general meetings of AGs and lists of shareholders in limited liability companies.

How can I perform a search (and what are the available search criteria)?

A search can be carried out on the website of the Commercial Register portal under the heading ‘Normal Search’ using the name of the company or keywords, as well as the place of establishment or the registered office of the company. The search can be further refined using information such as the type of register, the registration number and the court of registration. In the ‘Advanced search’ field you can also search by address.

A quick search using the company name can also be carried out on the website of the Company Register, with the option of restricting the search to register information or publications. In addition, an advanced search of comparable criteria can be carried out using the Commercial Register portal.

The commercial, cooperative and partnership register may also be consulted in person at the office of the relevant court of registration.

How can I obtain an extract from the register, certified copy or transcript of documents?

An extract from the register can be accessed in electronic form on the register portal on payment of a fee of EUR 4.50. Documents stored in the Commercial Register, such as articles of association, company contracts, etc., can also be accessed electronically on the register portal. A fee of EUR 1.50 is payable for each document accessed. These fees will, however, cease to apply on 1 August 2022.

A simple or certified copy of an extract from the register may also be requested, on payment of a fee, from the competent court of registration, which may send it to the applicant in paper or electronic form, bearing a qualified electronic signature if a certified copy is required.

Extracts from registers and documents stored in the Commercial Register are also available on the website of the Company Register, with the same fees as for direct access to the register portal. Access to accounting documents in the Company Register is free of charge, while a fee of EUR 1.00 per balance sheet is payable for accessing the balance sheets of microenterprises.

Registration procedure

How can I apply for registration (submission of applications to the register; certification of documents; type of documents which need to be attached)?

Registration applications must be submitted electronically in an officially certified form. Applications are certified by a notary as a simple electronic certificate. As of 1 August 2022, notaries may also certify qualified electronic signatures online by means of video communication in the case of Commercial Register entries of limited liability companies and sole traders.

Documents are also submitted in electronic form, as scanned documents. Notarially authenticated or certified documents shall be accompanied by a simple electronic certificate drawn up by a notary.

How are submitted applications reviewed?

The notary certifying the registration application checks that it is registrable before it is filed. Following the submission of the application, the court of registration also checks, on the basis of the ‘two pairs of eyes’ principle, whether the fact submitted is registrable and whether the formal conditions for registration are met, in particular the submission of an application to that effect, the eligibility of the applicant, the provision of documents necessary for filing the application, and the jurisdiction of the court seised. However, the factual accuracy of the facts submitted, e.g. whether the entry or departure of a shareholder has effectively taken place, is in general not checked.

Legal effect of registration

Effect of registration on third parties according to Article 17 of Directive (EU) 2017/1132

A company may, in relation to third parties, appeal only to facts entered and published in the Commercial Register (Section 15(2) HGB).

If a fact that should have been entered in the Commercial Register has not been entered and published, third parties are protected in their expectation that the fact in question does not exist (Section 15(1) HGB).

Discrepancies between the register entry and its published form

If the entry in the Commercial Register differs from the content of its published form, the latter is authoritative. Third parties may invoke inaccuracy of publication unless they were aware of the inaccuracy (Section 15(3) HGB). However, this applies only if the enterprise concerned also initiated, i.e. applied for, the registration.

In transposition of the Digitalisation Directive, from 1 August 2022, register entries will be disclosed on the Commercial Register Portal as soon as they become accessible. No further (separate) publication will take place as of that date. It will then no longer be possible for there to be any discrepancies between a register entry and its published form. From that point in time, therefore, the only decisive factor for the good faith provision of Section 15(3) HGB will be whether the entry in the register is inaccurate.

Who is responsible for the accuracy of entries?

Since, as a general rule, courts of registration do not verify the substantive accuracy of the entries, the undertakings subject to registration bear the responsibility for the accuracy of the facts entered.

Data protection procedures

Procedures related to the rights of the data subject regarding publishing and storing their personal data

Access via the Trade Register Portal is logged with details of the court of registration, the register page and the person or body accessing it. Logged data may be used only for the purpose of ensuring proper data processing and the settlement of costs and must be protected against improper use or other kinds of misuse by appropriate means. Logged data are destroyed no later than 5 years after payment of the costs.

Access via the Company Register may be documented solely for the purpose of settlement and in order to prevent improper access. Logged data must be deleted after no more than 6 months unless they need to be stored for longer for accounting purposes.

The provisions on data protection, in particular the General Data Protection Regulation, also apply to the publication and storage of personal data.

Contact information

Commercial Register portal

Hagen Local Court

-Registration portal service point-

Heinitzstr. 42, 58097 Hagen

Telephone +49 2331985112

Fax +49 21187565114100

Email: Link opens in new windowservice@handelsregister.de

Company Register

Bundesanzeiger Verlag GmbH

Amsterdamer Straße 192, 50735 Köln

Telephone: +49 221976680

Email: Link opens in new windowservice@bundesanzeiger.de

Useful Links

Link opens in new windowGerman Commercial Register portal

Link opens in new windowAdvanced Search

Link opens in new windowNormal search

Link opens in new windowGerman Company Register

Last update: 26/09/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Estonia

This page provides you with an overview of the Estonian commercial register and the register of non-profit associations and foundations.

What information can be found in the Estonian commercial register and the register of non-profit associations and foundations?

The commercial register and the register of non-profit associations and foundations are maintained by the registration department of Tartu County Court. The registers are maintained at the court to ensure the independent status and legal expertise of the registrar. They have strong legal force and their aim is to ensure legal certainty. An entry in the commercial register is held as correct with regard to a third party, unless the third party knew or should have known that the entry was not correct. An entry is deemed not to apply with regard to transactions which are concluded within 15 days after the entry is made if a third party proves that the third party was not aware nor should have been aware of the content of the entry. Thus a third party may, in good faith, trust in the veracity of the entries in the register, for instance presuming, upon entering into a contract, that the person entered in the register as a member of the management board possesses signatory authority for the company in question.

Some legal circumstances are only valid if they are entered in the register: for instance, the signatory authority of a member of a management board may be circumscribed in the articles of association or the contract entered into with the member of the management board, but only the limitations entered in the register apply to third parties.

Certain important circumstances take effect from the moment the register entry is made: for instance, the increasing of a company’s share capital takes effect from the moment the increase is entered in the commercial register, and not from the time the decision to increase the share capital is taken or from the time the contributions are made. The same applies to the establishment of a legal entity, the amendment of its articles of association or to its merger, division and transformation.

The registers are maintained electronically.

The registration department of Tartu County Court maintains the commercial register of self-employed persons, companies (public limited companies, private limited companies, general partnerships, limited partnerships, commercial associations, European Companies (Societas Europaea), European Cooperative Societies (Societas Cooperativa Europaea) and European groupings of territorial cooperation) and branches of foreign companies located in Estonia.

The register of non-profit associations and foundations holds information on the non-profit associations and foundations located in Estonia (non-profit associations are also deemed to include political parties and other not-for-profit associations, as well as trade unions, churches, congregations, associations of congregations, and monasteries). The register of non-profit associations and foundations also includes the register of housing associations and the register of land improvement associations.

The following are opened in the commercial register or the register of non-profit associations and foundations for each self-employed person, legal entity and branch of a foreign company:

  • a registry card;
  • a business file (in the commercial register) or a public file (in the case of non-profit associations, foundations and housing associations);
  • a registry file.

The business and public files contain documents that a legal entity, a self-employed person or a branch of a foreign company has submitted to the registrar in accordance with law, for instance the articles of incorporation or association and other documents entered in the public record. Court judgments, appeals against rulings, correspondence and other documents that are not kept in the business or public files are kept in the registry file.

The following information is entered on the registry card of a legal entity, a self-employed person or a branch of a foreign company:

  • the business name or name and the registry code;
  • the residence or registered office and address of legal entities, self-employed persons and branches of foreign companies, and for these persons and companies also the email address;
  • details concerning the self-employed person, and details concerning the suspension of the person’s operations and the seasonal or temporary nature of the operations;
  • for branches of foreign companies, the register in which the company is entered and, if entry in a register is required under the laws of the country in which the company is established, the registration number; the country under whose laws the company operates in the country in which it is established; when the company’s articles of association were adopted and whether they have been amended, if this is entered in the register in the country in which the company is established;
  • details concerning persons with powers of representation (members of the management board, general partners, managing partners or third parties, limited partners, liquidators, the trustee in bankruptcy), the names and personal identification numbers of the branch managers (and any specific factors regarding their powers of representation), and the names and personal identification numbers of the legal representatives of the foreign company and when their powers of representation took effect and expire; also any agreements concerning the right of representation, and the powers of the members of the management board of a legal entity and of liquidators to represent the legal entity;
  • the name or business name and the personal identification number or registration number of the contact person for a non-profit association, foundation, company and branch of a foreign company, and the Estonian address for delivery of declarations of intent addressed to an undertaking and for service of procedural documents, as well as the email address of the contact person;
  • details concerning the procurator;
  • the legal form of the undertaking or the branch of a foreign company, or the type of company;
  • when the articles of association of the legal entity were approved;
  • the monetary value of the company’s share capital (for a branch of a foreign company, the value of the company’s share capital if it is entered in the register in the country in which the company is established), details concerning limited partners, and the value of their contributions;
  • a note concerning the foundation of the private limited company without contributions being made;
  • a note indicating that the shares have been registered in the Estonian central register of securities or a note of the party maintaining the share register;
  • a note indicating that the formal disposition requirements for the transfer or pledge of a share have been waived;
  • the beginning and end of the financial year for a company, non-profit association, foundation, foreign company or land improvement association (and, for a branch of a foreign company, also whether the company is required to publish an annual report);
  • the information on bankruptcy required by law, and information on the appointment of a cover pool administrator;
  • a note concerning the merger, division and transformation of the company and concerning its dissolution and de-registration;
  • reference to entries made by the registrar as provided by law and without the undertaking making a request;
  • information on the depositary for documents from a liquidated legal entity;
  • for branches of foreign companies, the register in which the company is entered and, if entry in a register is required under the laws of the country in which the company is established, the registration number; the country under whose laws the company operates in the country in which it is established; when the company’s articles of association were adopted and whether they have been amended, if this is entered in the register in the country in which the company is established;
  • the objectives of the foundation; the location of the central administration, if it is in a foreign country; when the establishment decision was taken; the period of operation, if a foundation has been established for a set period;
  • the code of the land improvement system located in the area of operation of the land improvement association;
  • the name and registration number of the manager of the apartment association, and a note indicating that a loan has been taken;
  • the period of operation of a non-profit association if it has been established for a set period;
  • the date of the entry, references to subsequent entries and other remarks;
  • other information provided by law.

Register matters are reviewed as non-contentious civil cases using written proceedings. Entries are made in the registers on the basis of an application for entry or a court decision or on other bases laid down by law. Applications for entry must either bear a digital signature or be in the form of a notarial document.

Entries in the commercial register and the register of non-profit associations and foundations are public. Everyone has the right to examine registry card data and the documents in business or public files and to obtain copies of them. Registry files may be examined by competent government bodies, courts during proceedings and other persons or entities with a legitimate interest.

The central database of the commercial register and the register of non-profit associations and foundations is maintained by the Centre of Registers and Information Systems. The Centre also offers the following services:

The e-Business Register

The e-Business Register is a service based on the database of the registration department of Tartu County Court that displays real-time data concerning all legal entities, self-employed persons and branches of foreign companies registered in Estonia. The e-Business Register makes it possible to:

  • examine registry card data, general data and data on tax arrears free of charge;
  • search by name, registry code, registered office, field of activities, etc.;
  • view, for a fee, annual reports, articles of association and other electronic documents, personal information and commercial pledge data, etc., contained in the business or public files;
  • monitor in real time procedural information concerning companies and changes to their entries;
  • check free of charge any trade bans imposed on Estonian persons or entities;
  • view free of charge the list of members of political parties;
  • view the links between various companies and persons.

The e-Business Register also enables persons and entities to submit documents to the registration department of the court themselves. Applications to register a new company, amend its registry data, liquidate it and delete it from the register can be submitted via the e-Business Register. It is also possible to prepare and submit annual reports. Estonian, Finnish, Latvian and Belgian citizens and e-residents of Estonia can log in to the e-Business Register using their ID cards for authentication. Estonian and Lithuanian citizens can log in using the Mobile-ID service.

Further information about the e-Business Register is available on the Link opens in new windowwebsite of the Centre of Registers and Information Systems.

European Business Register (EBR)

The European Business Register (EBR) is a web-based search system providing official information on European companies. Searches can be made on the Link opens in new windowwebsite.

  • Information is available from the commercial registers of a total of Link opens in new window17 countries.
  • Searches may be made concerning companies and persons.
  • The Link opens in new windowlist of available information varies from country to country.
  • Registry data has a different legal effect in different countries.
  • The search function can be used by both private individuals and companies.
  • A fee is charged for the service.

Is access to the Estonian commercial register free of charge?

Registry data can be accessed Link opens in new windowonline and at Link opens in new windownotaries’ offices.

No fee is charged online for searches concerning legal entities, self-employed persons and branches of foreign companies, for information about court proceedings or for access to registry card data. No fee is charged for persons carrying out an online search on themselves. However, a fee is charged for all other searches, including historical registry card data and access to annual reports, articles of association and other documents. Where a fee is charged for information, payment is made immediately by internet bank transfer. Subscribers with the right to use the extended search parameters pay on the basis of monthly invoices. The rates charged for using the computer data in the commercial register are laid down in a Link opens in new windowRegulation of the Minister for Justice.

A fee is charged for consulting registry data and file documents at a notary’s office. The fees are set out in the Link opens in new windowNotary Fees Act.

How to search the Estonian commercial register

Searches can be made in the commercial register and the register of non-profit associations and foundations using the e-Business Register on the Link opens in new windowwebsite of the Centre of Registers and Information Systems.

How reliable are the documents contained in the register?

This page explains how the use of the data and documents contained in the commercial register is regulated in Estonia.

The registration department of Tartu County Court maintains the commercial register. Self-employed persons, branches of foreign companies, and companies (public limited companies, private limited companies, general partnerships, limited partnerships, commercial associations, European Companies (Societas Europaea), European Cooperative Societies (Societas Cooperativa Europaea) and European groupings of territorial cooperation) are entered in the commercial register. This electronic register has strong legal force, and its aim is to ensure legal certainty. The commercial register is maintained in Estonian.

An entry in the commercial register is held as correct with regard to a third party, unless the third party knew or should have known that the entry was not correct. An entry is deemed not to apply with regard to transactions which are concluded within 15 days after the entry is made if a third party proves that the third party was not aware nor should have been aware of the content of the entry. Thus a third party may, in good faith, trust in the veracity of the entries in the register, for instance presuming, upon entering into a contract, that the person entered in the register as a member of the management board possesses signatory authority for the company in question.

Some legal circumstances are only valid if they are entered in the register: for instance, the signatory authority of a member of a management board may be circumscribed in the articles of association or the contract entered into with the member of the management board, but only the limitations entered in the register apply to third parties.

Certain important circumstances take effect from the moment the register entry is made: for instance, the increasing of a company’s share capital takes effect from the moment the increase is entered in the commercial register, and not from the time the decision to increase the share capital is taken or from the time the contributions are made. The same applies to the establishment of a legal entity, the amendment of its articles of association or to its merger, division and transformation.

The following are opened in the commercial register for each self-employed person, legal entity and branch of a foreign company:

  • a registry card;
  • a business file;
  • a registry file.

The business file contains documents that a company, self-employed person or the branch of a foreign company has submitted to the registrar in accordance with the law, for instance the articles of incorporation or association and other documents submitted to the public record. Court judgments, appeals against rulings, correspondence and other documents that are not kept in the business file are kept in the registry file.

Documents in a foreign language are to be submitted to the registrar with a translation into Estonian by a sworn translator. Documents may also be submitted to the registrar with a translation into Estonian by a notary, if the notary has prepared a notarial act or notarial attestation in a foreign language on the basis of Section 5(2) of the Notarisation Act. Where documents are submitted that do not meet these requirements and that are completely or partly in a foreign language, the registrar proceeds solely on the basis of the documents or passages of text submitted in Estonian. Undertakings and third parties cannot rely on documents or passages of text in a foreign language. An undertaking may not rely on a translation which differs from the original document. A third party may rely on the translation of a document submitted to the registrar unless the undertaking proves that the third party was aware of the inaccuracy of the translation.

Entries in the commercial register are public. Everyone has the right to examine the information contained in the registry cards and the documents in business files and to obtain copies of them. Registry files may be examined by competent government bodies, courts during proceedings and other persons or entities with a legitimate interest.

Documents in the file may be viewed and copies thereof may be requested via the e-Business Register or through a notary.

History of the Estonian commercial register

The Estonian commercial register contains information dating back to 1 September 1995. All data is regularly updated.

Related links

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register

Link opens in new windowThe e-Business Register

Link opens in new windowRegistration Department

Link opens in new windowNotaries

Last update: 20/09/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Ireland

This section provides you with an overview of Ireland's business register.

What does the Irish business register offer?

The Link opens in new windowRegister of Companies records certain documents which are kept and maintained by the Companies Registration Office pursuant to filing obligations on companies arising under and by virtue of the Companies Acts, 1963-2012.  The register provides basic company information, such as:

  • The address,
  • Date of incorporation
  • Date of last annual return filed

All documents filed by companies under the Companies’ Acts are publicly accessible. Company profiles may be purchased. This provides an extract of the information on the register, including company officers, charges and a list of the documents filed.

Is access to the Irish register of companies free of charge?

Yes, access to basic company information is free of charge. However, a fee is charged for the retrieval of any other information.

How to search the Irish register of companies and business names?

Searches can be conducted by company/business number or name. There are four possible name searches:

  • 'Contains all these words' searches for names containing these words(recommended)
  • 'Starts with this phrase' searches for names beginning with this phrase
  • 'Contains this phrase' searches for names containing this phrase.
  • The alphasort is a string created by removing common words such as 'Ireland', 'Limited', 'The', 'And', etc. and by stripping out spaces, commas, hyphens, etc. from the company name. To perform an alphasort search you should do the same.

Name searches may be narrowed by including address details.

To which extent can the documents in the register be relied upon?

The Companies Registration Office (CRO) is the central repository of public statutory information on companies in Ireland. The Companies Act 2014 and related legislation are the statutory basis on which companies are required to provide information to the CRO for registration and publication.

The information contained on the companies register is supplied to the CRO by third parties, pursuant to statutory obligation, including the obligation not to knowingly or recklessly supply false information to the CRO. The CRO cannot and does not vouch for the accuracy of the information which has been supplied to it by third parties.

In relation to the submission of certain documents and particulars there is a statutory requirement that the person making the submission must sign a statutory declaration that he or she believes that the required particulars and documents have been properly submitted. In accordance with the Statutory Declarations Act 1938 as amended, any person who knowingly makes a false or misleading statutory declaration is liable to prosecution and, on conviction, to a fine or imprisonment, or both.

Additionally, in accordance with section 876 of the Companies Act 2014, it is a criminal offence to knowingly or recklessly notify false information to the CRO on statutory forms.

History of the Irish register of companies

Electronic data on the register is complete in relation to all companies in normal status.

Related Links

BRIS - Business Register Interconnection System

Last update: 18/05/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Greece

What does the Greek Business Registry offer?

The Greek business registry is called the General Commercial Registry (G.E.MI. - Greek abbreviation) under Law No 3419/2005 (Link opens in new windowGovernment Gazette, Series I, No 297, 6.12.2005), as currently in force. It records all disclosures of business documents and data for limited liability companies and sole proprietorship companies. The website of the General Commercial Registry (G.E.MI) serves as the «National Gazette for the disclosure of commercial information». Natural or legal persons or associations of such persons as referred to in Article 1(1) of Law No 3419/2005 are obliged to register in the General Commercial Registry.

You can search on the Registry website for information disclosed by the following types of business.

a. Natural persons who are traders and have a place of business or establishment in Greece or who trade through a main or secondary establishment there.

b. Associations of persons trading through a main or secondary establishment in Greece, and all commercial companies, provided that they were established under Greek law, whether general partnerships or limited companies (with or without public shareholders), cooperatives governed by civil law (which include mutual insurance associations and credit cooperatives), and private and public limited companies – and natural or legal persons obliged to report pursuant to Article 39 of the Presidential Decree of 27.11/14.12.1926.

c. European economic interest groupings, as provided for by Council Regulation (EEC) No 2137/1985 (OJ L 199, corrigendum L 247), that have their headquarters in Greece.

d. European companies, as provided for by Council Regulation (EC) No 2157/2001 (OJ L 294), that have their headquarters in Greece.

e. European cooperative societies, as provided for by Council Regulation (EC) No 1435/2003 (OJ L 207), that have their headquarters in Greece.

f. Parties referred to above that have their principal place of business or their headquarters in Greece must also register any branches they have in Greece.

g. The foreign companies referred to in Article 1 of Directive 68/151/EEC (OJ L 65), as amended by Article 1 of Directive 2003/58/EC (OJ L 221), whose headquarters are in an EU Member State must register any branches or agencies they have in Greece.

h. Foreign companies whose headquarters are in a third country and which have a legal form similar to one of the foreign companies referred to in (g) above must register any branches or agencies they have in Greece.

i. Other natural or legal persons or associations of such persons that have their principal place of business or their headquarters abroad and that do not fall under points (g) or (h) must register any branches or agencies through which they trade in Greece.

j. Consortia.

k. Civil law companies pursuant to Article 784 of the Civil Code, and

l. Natural or legal persons or associations of such persons engaged in, or intending to engage in, an economic or professional activity without yet having registered as traders by virtue of that activity.

What documents and data are recorded in the Greek business register?

The entry for a business that is required to register must include the following information.

a. The registry number of the company, branch or agency.

b. The registry office or department which carried out the initial registration or subsequent registration and the full name of the official responsible.

c. The reference number of the registration application and the registration code.

d. Where under the legislation in force a trader’s licence, professional authorisation or establishment and operating permit is required in order to set up a business or begin trading, details of the decision taken by the authority or department competent to grant it.

e. Court decisions declaring the company insolvent or placing it in a conciliation or other collective procedure to meet the claims of its creditors. The entry also includes the full name, parents’ full names, identity card or passport numbers, place and date of birth, nationality and home address of the company’s liquidators, compulsory administrators, trustees and insolvency practitioners.

f. Details of the judicial decisions terminating, suspending or reversing the legal situations referred to in (e) above.

g. The data that have to be published in accordance with insolvency law.

h. Details of pending applications for insolvency or conciliation or other collective procedures.

i. The number of branches or agencies that the company has in Greece, and the address and registration number of each of these.

j. The number, address and details of the branches or agencies that the company has abroad.

k. The following information is registered and published in respect of companies based in Greece:

(a) memorandum and articles of association;

(b) amendments to the instrument of constitution or statutes, including the extension of the period of life of the company and, subsequent to any amendment of the instrument of constitution or of the statutes, the full text of the instrument or statutes, as amended by the new version;

(c) the appointment, termination of office and particulars of the persons who either as a body constituted pursuant to law or as members of any such body:

(i) are authorised to represent the company in dealings with third parties; (in the event that this concerns more than one person, the relevant entry must state whether these persons can act alone or whether they must act jointly);

(ii) represent the company before a court of law;

(iii) take part in the administration, supervision or control of the company;

(d) at least once a year, the amount of the capital subscribed, where the instrument of constitution or the statutes mention an authorised capital, unless any increase in the capital subscribed necessitates an amendment of the statutes;

(e) the accounting documents for each financial year which are mandatory under Council Directives 78/660/EEC (OJ L 222,14.8.1978), 83/349/EEC (OJ L 193, 18.7.1983), 86/635/EEC (OJ L 372, 31.12.1986) and 91/674/EEC (OJ L 374, 31.12.1991);

(f) any change of headquarters;

(g) the winding-up of the company;

(h) any declaration of nullity of the company by the courts;

(i) the appointment and particulars of the liquidators;

(j) the termination of the liquidation and the removal from the register.

ΙΙ. The following information is registered and published in relation to the foreign companies referred to in Article 1 of Directive 68/151/EEC (OJ L 65), as amended by Article 1 of Directive 2003/58/EC (OJ L 221), that have their head office in an EU Member State:

(a) the postal or other address of the branch;

(b) the indication of the area of the branch’s operations;

(c) the Member State register in which the company’s file is kept and the company’s registration number in that register;

(d) the company’s name and legal form, and the name of the branch if different from the name of the company;

(e) the appointment, termination of office and particulars of the persons who are authorised to represent the company in dealings with third parties and in legal proceedings:

(i) if they are provided for by law as management bodies of the company or as members of such a body in accordance with the disclosure requirements of the company under Article 2(1) of Directive 2009/101/EC (OJ L 258/1.10.2009);

(ii) as permanent representatives of the company for the activities of the branch, with an indication of the extent of their powers;

(f) the winding-up of the company, the appointment and particulars of the liquidators and their powers and the finalisation of the winding up, including a reference to the Member State register, insolvency proceedings, arrangements, compositions, or any analogous proceedings to which the company is subject;

(g) the accounting documents of the company, as prepared, have been verified and published in accordance with the law of the Member State by which the company is governed and in accordance with Directives 78/660/EEC (OJ L 222, 14.8.1978), 83/349/EEC (OJ L 193, 18.7.1983) and 84/253/EEC (OJ L 126, 12.5.1984, p. 20);

(h) the closure of the branch.

How do you perform a search in the Greek business register?

You can search for any commercial disclosures on the website of the Link opens in new windowGeneral Commercial Registry using just one of the following pieces of information relating to the company:

  1. Tax Identification Number (A.F.M. - Greek abbreviation) or
  2. General Commercial Registry (Γ.Ε.ΜI.) number or
  3. Company name or
  4. Short name.

Is access to the Greek Commercial Registry free of charge?

All members of the public can access the entry of a company in the Link opens in new windowGeneral Commercial Registry free of charge. You may also digitally store on your own electronic device and print or otherwise reproduce any document, information or notice posted on the Registry website for public consultation either by the Registry or by the persons required to do so. If you wish to obtain official (authentic) certificates or copies of documents or data recorded in a company’s entry in the Registry, you can register free of charge with the Link opens in new windowGeneral Commercial Registry’s outreach department.

You can obtain official certificates or copies of documents and particulars on prior payment of a fee through the relevant electronic application. Certificates or copies of the relevant documents or data are delivered in two different ways: digitally through the Registry’s outreach application, or by post to the addressee, anywhere in the world.

How is the authenticity of the official certificates or copies issued by the Greek Commercial Registry verified?

The authenticity of the relevant official certificates or copies is verified through the Link opens in new windowGreek General Commercial Registry.

If you fill in the reference number of the certificate or copy, the company’s registry number and the registry department that issued the document, the body of the document will appear.

How reliable are the Registry’s documents?

The documents listed in businesses’ entries can be relied upon, because the Registry is the only site available for commercial disclosure and constitutes the «National Gazette for the disclosure of commercial information» within the meaning of Article 3(5) of Directive 2009/101/EC. The General Commercial Registry is linked to the registers of the other Member States referred to in that legislation (national registers) through a centralised set of IT tools (the «European central platform») as part of the system of interconnection of registers under Directive 2012/17/EU. Documents and data are registered in the General Commercial Registry following a check carried out by the staff of the Registry on their legality, accuracy, clarity and completeness and whether all the relevant fees provided for by current legislation have been paid. Provided that this check does not reveal anything which could prevent registration, the responsible Registry department will enter the relevant information for the business in the Registry. If the application, the documents submitted or the other supporting documents do not meet the requirements of the law or are not accurate and complete, the department responsible will ask you, either in writing or by fax or e-mail, to make the necessary explanations, corrections or supplements to the application, the supporting documents and the accompanying documents, within 5 working days of receipt of the request. This period may be extended up to 1 month, if the circumstances and the type of data to be recorded so require. A deadline of this kind extends any other legal deadline for entering information in the Registry. If there is no response within the 5-day deadline or any extension granted, or if the information submitted is not considered to meet the legal requirements or is not accurate and complete, the application for registration will be rejected by a reasoned decision and the registration fees will be refunded. For general partnerships and limited partnerships, public and private limited liability companies, cooperatives governed by civil law, European economic interest groupings provided for by Regulation 2137/1985/EEC (OJ L 199, corrigendum L 247) based in Greece, European companies provided for by Regulation 2157/2001/EC (OJ L 294) based in Greece, European cooperative societies provided for by Regulation 1435/2003/EC (OJ L 207) based in Greece, and civil law companies referred to in Article 784 of the Civil Code, the registration of facts, statements, documents and other information in the General Electronic Commercial Register will produce the following effects:

a. Legal persons of the kinds referred to above which are in the course of being set up will acquire legal personality.

b. Subject to the specific provisions of current legislation governing the conversion of companies, businesses registering conversion will thereby be converted into public limited liability companies, private limited liability companies, cooperatives governed by civil law, European economic interest groupings, European companies or European cooperatives, as applicable.

c. The business’s instrument of constitution or statutes will be amended.

d. A merger or division will take place, subject only to registration and prior to the striking-off the register of the company that is absorbed or divided.

e. The business will be wound up, following a decision by the partners or the issuing of the relevant administrative act.

f. A business will be revived.

Lastly, according to the express provision of paragraph 4 of Law No 3419/2005, the relevant entries in the Registry are presumed to be legal and correct.

Is there anything specific I need to know about the Greek General Commercial Registry?

The website of the General Commercial Registry (G.E.MI.) serves as the «Greek electronic National Gazette» for the disclosure of commercial information under Article 3(5) of Directive 2009/101/EC of 16.9.2009 (OJ L 258). The general directory of company names, the entry and all other information necessary for the public use of the Registry are published on the Registry website. Any natural or legal person has the right to access the Registry free of charge. You may also digitally store on your own electronic device and print or otherwise reproduce any document, data or notice posted on the G.E.MI. website for public consultation either by the Registry department or by the persons required to do so.

As part of the system of interconnection of registers, the General Commercial Registry: (a) communicates by email with the other national registers and (i) receives information on data stored in another national register concerning companies which have their registered office in one EU Member State and branches in another EU Member State and (ii) provides information on the data referred to in Article 6(2a) and (2b) of Law No 3419/2005 on companies which have their registered office or branches in Greece as referred to under paragraph 1(g) of the same law; and (b) replies to questions submitted by individual users to the single European electronic access point of the system of interconnection of registers («the portal») as regards the information under point (a)(i).

The Companies and Registry Department of the Directorate-General for Markets (Secretariat-General for Trade and Consumer Protection, Ministry of the Economy, Development and Tourism) is responsible for replying to questions submitted via the European electronic portal concerning the documents and information referred to in Article 6(2a) and (2b) of Law No 3419/2005 for companies whose shares are quoted on the Athens Stock Exchange, banks and branches of banks in EU Member States and third countries, public limited liability insurance companies and branches of insurance companies in EU Member States and third countries, public limited liability investment funds, public limited liability mutual fund management companies, public limited liability mutual fund management companies for immovable property, public limited liability investment funds for immovable property, public limited liability assets and liabilities management companies, public limited liability investment firms and public limited liability sports (football and basketball) companies.

In addition, a department of the Registry operates for each chamber of commerce in Greece, and is responsible, among other things, for replying to questions submitted via the European electronic portal concerning the documents and information referred to in Article 6(2a) and (2b) of Law No 3419/2005 regarding all legal forms of company other than those referred to above.

Nota bene: The information provided above is merely an overview designed to inform those concerned of the interconnection between the Greek Registry, i.e. the General Commercial Registry (G.E.MI.), and the other Member States’ national registries. More detailed information on the legal framework can be found on the Link opens in new windowGeneral Commercial Registry (G.E.MI.) website.

Related links

Link opens in new windowElectronic publication by the General Commercial Registry

Link opens in new windowRegistration of members of the public for the online services of the General Commercial Registry (G.E.MI.)

Link opens in new windowRegistration of businesses in the General Commercial Registry (G.E.MI.)

Link opens in new windowVerification of the authenticity of certificates and copies issued by the General Commercial Registry

Link opens in new windowLegislation on the General Commercial Registry

Last update: 15/09/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

The language version you are now viewing is currently being prepared by our translators.
Please note that the following languages: Spanish have already been translated.

Business registers in Member States - Spain

In Spain, 'Registradores' (Registrars) are responsible for maintaining the following registers:

  • Land and Property Registers ('Registros de la Propiedad de Bienes Inmuebles', generically known as the Land Registers (“Registros de la Propiedad”).
  • Movable Property Registers ('Registros de la Propiedad de Bienes Muebles').
  • Business Registers ('Registros Mercantiles').
  • Register of General Contract Conditions ('Registro de Condiciones Generales de la Contratación')

You will find an explanation of the 'Registros de la Propiedad', together with related links, on the e–Justice portal, in the section on Land Registers.

This page contains:

  • An explanation of the Business Registers in Spain, together with related links.
  • A brief explanation of the Movable Property Register, with related links.
  • A brief explanation of the Register of General Contract Conditions , with related links.

What does the Business Register in Spain provide?

Legal and economic certainty.

The main features of the Spanish Business Register system are set out below.

1.- Purpose of the Business Register

1.1.- Entities which must register

  • Individual entrepreneurs
  • Commercial undertakings
  • Non-profit making organisations
  • Credit and insurance entities and mutual guarantee companies
  • Collective investment undertakings
  • Economic interest groups
  • Savings banks
  • Pension funds
  • Branches of any of the above
  • Branches of foreign firms
  • Foreign firms which move their registered headquarters to Spanish territory
  • All undertakings which carry out a commercial activity, provided that the figures for purchases made or brokered, or the sales figures, exceed EUR 600 000.

1.2.- Business Register: areas of activity

  • Company documents. The record of incorporation of a business undertaking is the first item in the historical register of a company. After this, entries will concern documents and contracts relating to each company (e.g. increase or decrease in share capital, changes in the makeup of the board, appointments or terminations of service of administrators or managers, insolvency proceedings, appeals against corporate decisions, etc.).
  • Accounting records. Entrepreneurs and companies must keep accounting records and submit them to their local Business Register for authentication by the Business Registrar. The accounts must be submitted at the latest four months after the end of the company's financial year. Those companies whose financial year ends on 31 December must therefore submit them by 31 May.
  • Submission of the annual accounts of entrepreneurs and other individuals required to submit them. Under the General Accounting Plan (Plan General Contable), it is mandatory to keep annual accounts. These must be approved by the partners or shareholders within six months of the end of the company's financial year and, once approved, must be submitted within the following month for compulsory authentication by the local Business Register. In normal circumstances, therefore, firms for which the date of closure of the financial year is 31 December, and which have approved the accounts by 30 June, must submit them by 30 July.
  • Processing of applications for the appointment of auditors and experts. Any shareholder who holds 5 % of the share capital of a company has the right to request, within three months of the end of the financial year, that the local Business Register appoint an auditor. In companies where the financial year ends on 31 December, partners or shareholders who hold at least 5 % of the share capital have until 31 March of the following year to request the appointment of an auditor. They may also ask the local Business Registrar to appoint business experts in cases where contributions in kind are to be made and in the event of a merger or division.

2.- Legal certainty in the Spanish Business Register

The Business Register is the main legal instrument for recording business activity. It is essential for economic development, as a means to reduce transaction costs.

Entries in the Register are made after verifications are carried out: checks on the legality and validity of the content of the documents and corporate agreements and on the capacity and legitimacy of those who conclude them.

As a consequence of these checks by the Registrar, such entries have powerful legal standing:

  1. The content of the Register is deemed to be accurate and valid.
  2. Instruments registered may be enforceable against bona fide third parties.
  3. Entries in the Register are safeguarded by the courts and will be effective unless a court judgment declares them to be inaccurate or void.
  4. A judgment declaring the entries to be inaccurate or void will not prejudice the legally acquired rights of bona fide third parties.

In this way, firms, citizens and government departments avoid high transaction costs, since they have at their disposal sufficient accredited information on the entities with which they intend to enter into contractual relations, and on their legal and economic situation.

3.- Registration procedure

The general principal is that public certification is required to make entries in the Business Register. Documents may be validated by notaries, the courts or administrative authorities. Private documents may only be entered in cases explicitly provided for by law and under the Business Register regulations. Examples of private documents which can be entered include: registration of an individual entrepreneur not involved in the shipping industry; the appointment, termination of service, acceptance and resignation of the posts of administrators, liquidators and auditors.

The procedure must be requested. This means, other than in exceptional circumstances, it is initiated by the person who wishes to make the entry.

Is access to the Business Register free of charge?

Access to the Business Register in Spain is not free of charge.

The Link opens in new windowFees of Business Registrars and the Link opens in new windowRegulation governing the Business Register set the cost of registration and publications.

The registration fees are dependent on various factors and must be consulted directly at Link opens in new windowFees of Business Registrars.

The cost of publication varies between €1.20 and €24 and can be consulted directly at Link opens in new windowFees of Business Registrars or at Link opens in new windowAssociation of Registrars of Spain.

How do I consult the Spanish Business Register?

1.- Public nature of the register

The Business Register is public. It is the responsibility of the Business Registrar to process the content of the entries in the register for professional purposes.

2.- Extract from the register

Description.- An abbreviated extract from the register (nota simple) is of a purely informative nature and is not an authentic representation of the content of the entry. It contains some or all of the information relating to the entry concerned.

How to obtain an abbreviated extract.- There are two methods:

  • In writing. By requesting it in person from the relevant Business Register.
  • Online. Use the first of the links at the bottom of the page.

3.- Certificates

Description.- A certificate is a copy, transcription or transfer, either in full or in summary form, of the contents of the information held by the Registry which, once it is processed by the Registrar, represents the only way of conveying the authentic nature of the entry in the Business Register. Registrars can also certify documents which are deposited or archived in the Register.

How to obtain a certificate.- Certificates can only be obtained by written request. You can make this request in person, by post or by fax or similar. Electronic certificates can also be requested; these feature the Registrar's recognised electronic signature.

4.- Consulting the Business Register via the Internet

See 'Useful links' below. The procedure is very simple - just follow the instructions on the web page below:

The website offers you the possibility of paying by credit card if you are not a subscriber or do not have a certificate previously recognised by the Association of Registrars:

  • 'Card payments' (pagos con tarjeta). You must then enter your credit card details.
  • Click on 'Enter' (Entrar).

On this page you can choose between: the Land Register, the Business Register, the Movable Property Register or the Register of General Contract Conditions. You should select: 'Public commercial records' (Publicidad Mercantil).

  • Then select your area of interest.

Anyone can consult the interactive commercial information provided by the Association of Registrars in real time using this web page. Certain company information, including the exact content of the registered annual accounts, is available on demand, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The information obtained from registered company documents is updated and truthful.

How reliable are documents in the Register?

Directive 2012/17/EU on the interconnection of central, commercial and companies registers added Article 3a to Directive 2009/101/EC. Article 3a concerns the requirement for Member States to provide up-to-date information explaining the provisions of national law according to which third parties can rely on particulars and each type of document referred to in Article 2, in accordance with Article 3(5), (6) and (7). Specifically, Member States must provide this information for publication on the European e-Justice portal in accordance with the portal’s rules and technical requirements. The information in question relates to how, for each legal system, requests can be made to consult the details referred to in Article 2 of the Directive, and it also relates to the enforceability of instruments recorded in the Register against third parties.

The details referred to in Article 2 of the Directive are published in the Spanish Business Register, which is governed by the principles of the personal form, public certification, legality, legitimacy, official authority, enforceability, chain of title and publication.

Article 19 of Law 14/2013, and its 13th Additional Provision, on support for entrepreneurs and their internationalisation, lay down that the Business Register be kept in electronic format, using a single IT system, as required by law.

Information contained in the Business Register is published as a certificate or an extract.

The certificate issued by the Business Registrar is the only way of conveying the authentic nature of the entries in the Register and reference is made to this certificate in Article 23(1) of the Commercial Code and in Articles 12 and 77 of the Business Register Regulation.

Articles 12 and 78 of the Business Register Regulation relate to extracts of all or some of the information entered in the Register.

It is also possible to consult the Register online, as referred to in Article 79 of the same Regulation.

In accordance with Article 23(4) of the Commercial Code and Article 80 of the Business Register Regulation, the publication rules contained in mortgage law are also applicable, specifically Articles 221, 222, 222a, 227 and 248 of the Mortgage Act, which give the option of publishing information electronically. Article 110(1) of Law 24/2001 relates to publication by the Registrar using an electronic signature and also applies to Business Registers, as part of the incorporation of electronic, IT and digital techniques (Articles 106 to 115).

In accordance with Article 379 of the Business Register Regulation, the purpose of the Central Business Register is to organise, record and publish, for information purposes only, the details it receives from the Business Registers, store and publish the names of entities and legal persons, publish the Official Gazette of the Business Register, maintain the Register of companies and entities that have moved their registered address outside Spain without losing Spanish nationality, and communicate the information referred to in Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 2157/2001. The Central Business Register can provide extracts, in accordance with Article 23 of the Commercial Code and Article 382 of the Business Register Regulation, but it cannot issue certificates other than those related to the names of companies that are registered.

Publication can be requested by post, fax or similar.

On the website of the Link opens in new windowRegistrars of Spain you can request information on registered entities using the search tool (Fichero Localizador de Entidades Inscritas).

As regards enforceability, Article 9 of the Business Register Regulation lays down that: '1. Documents that must be registered may only be enforceable against bona fide third parties once they have been published in the Official Gazette of the Business Register. The operation of the registration itself remains unaffected. 2. As regards transactions carried out within 15 days of publication, the documents registered and published shall not be enforceable against third parties who prove that it was impossible for them to have had knowledge thereof. 3. Where there is a discrepancy between the content of the publication and the content of the entry in the register, third parties acting in good faith may rely on the published version if it is favourable to them. Whoever is responsible for the discrepancy shall be required to compensate the injured party. 4. It is assumed that the third party is acting in good faith as long as it cannot be proved that they had knowledge of a document that should have been registered but was not, a document that was registered but not published, or a discrepancy between the content of the publication and the content of the entry in the register.'

You can find more information on:

History of the Business Register in Spain

1.- Antecedents

Historical antecedents of the current legislation on the Business Register in Spain are:

  • The Ordenanzas de Bilbao (1737), which established a register of matriculation numbers and flagging for ships.
  • The 1885 Commercial Code (Código de Comercio).
  • The Provisional Regulation on drawing up the 1885 Business Register, and the subsequent Regulations of 1919 and 14 December 1956, as amended by the Decree of 21 July 1973.

2.- Current legislation on the Business Register

General rules contained in the Commercial Code of 22 August 1885. While the basic provisions on the Business Register are contained in this Code, they have been amended many times, most recently by Law No 19/1989 of 25 July 1989.

  • Royal Legislative Decree No 1/2010 of 2 July 2010 on public limited liability companies. Law No 3/2009 of 3 April 2009 on structural modifications of companies.
  • Specific legislation on certain companies by sector of activity (financial entities, insurance companies, electricity sector, leasing companies, etc.).
  • Business Register Regulation of 19 July 1996. A new text of the Regulation is currently under preparation.

3.- Organisation

The Business Register is a public institution found in all the provincial capitals and other cities designated by law, which is managed by one or more Business Registrars and is under the direct authority of the Ministry of Justice, specifically the Directorate-General for Registers and Notaries.

The Registrar is a professional legal expert who performs a public service: he/she classifies and checks under their own responsibility all the documents to be entered in the Register.

There is a single Business Register in each provincial capital in Spain. There are also Business Registers in Ceuta, Melilla, Ibiza, Mahón, Arrecife, Puerto del Rosario, Santa Cruz de la Palma, San Sebastián de la Gomera, Valverde and Santiago de Compostela. A Central Business Register deals with the names of companies and commercial entities.

Companies acquire legal personality through registration in the Business Register in the place where their headquarters are established, which means that their entry in the Register is compulsory and forms part of the incorporation process.

Related links

MOVABLE PROPERTY REGISTER

1.- What is the purpose of the Spanish Movable Property Register?

Legal and economic certainty.

1.1.- Purpose of the Movable Property Register

The purpose of the Movable Property Register is the registration of ownership and other rights in rem relating to movable property which can be registered.

What type of movable property can be registered?

Movable property properly speaking: motor vehicles, consumer goods, industrial machinery, industrial premises, stocks, agricultural equipment and livestock farms, and other types of movable property designated by law.

Certain intangible assets and rights that can be registered: industrial and intellectual property rights, film exploitation rights, administrative licences and loans in general.

1.3.- What type of rights are registered with respect to movable property?

Ownership, attachments, reservation of ownership, prohibition on transfer of property, mortgages on immovable property, pledges without displacement and other assets that can be registered or entered in accordance with the law.

2.- Characteristics of the Spanish Movable Property Register

This is a State Register under the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. It is a legal Register, not a merely administrative one. In general, it is voluntary. There is an incentive to register, however, given the favourable impact of registration. There are no formal requirements: contracts are registered, usually as private documents and also as official models. There is also a system of approval in which, prior to registration, the Registrar checks the legality of the description, title and act being registered.

3.- Organisation

This Register is in electronic and paper format.

Royal Decree 1828/1999 splits the Movable Property Register into six sections:

  • Ships and aircraft
  • Cars and other motor vehicles
  • Industrial machinery, commercial premises and capital goods
  • Other collateral guarantees
  • Other movable property that can be registered
  • Register of General Contract Conditions.

4.- Is access to the Spanish Register of Movable Property free of charge?

No. Its fees are governed by the Order of 20 July 1999, Article 36 of which lists the amounts to be charged depending on the value of what is being registered:

  • Up to €600 in value: €2.40.
  • Between €600 and €6000 in value: €6.
  • Between €6000 and €12000 in value: €10.
  • Between €12000 and €18000 in value: €13.
  • Value in excess of €18000: €1.20 for each €3000 or fraction of that amount.

The fee system of the Land Register applies to mortgages on immovable property and pledges without transfer of possession, so fees from that system are applied (please refer to the section on the Land Register).

As for the information contained in this Register, €3 is charged for each extract and €6 to €24 for a certificate.

The VAT in force at the time is also applied.

5.- Consulting the Movable Property Register via the Internet

See 'Useful links' below. The procedure is very simple - just follow the instructions on the web page below:

Then click on: 'Access to Electronic Register' (Acceso Registro Electrónico). The website offers the possibility of paying by credit card, if you are not a subscriber or do not have a certificate previously recognised by the Association of Registrars:

  • 'Card payments' (pagos con tarjeta). You must then enter your credit card details.
  • Click on 'Enter' (Entrar).

On this page you can choose between: the Land Register, the Business Register, the Movable Property Register or the Register of General Contract Conditions. You should select: 'Public Movable Property Records' (Publicidad Bienes Muebles).

  • Then select your area of interest.

6.- Useful links

REGISTER OF GENERAL CONTRACT CONDITIONS

1.- What is the purpose of the Spanish Register of General Contract Conditions?

This Register protects the interests of consumers and users who enter into a contract with a natural or legal person who uses general contract conditions. It provides greater security for private legal transactions and thus the means necessary to avoid disputes.

1.2.- Purpose of the Spanish Register of General Contract Conditions

The Register of General Contract Conditions aims to achieve the following objectives:

1.- Depositing of general contract conditions

General contract conditions are contractual clauses that have been drafted unilaterally by one of the parties to the contract (standard clauses), for use in a number of contracts. They are in fact conditions which have not been individually negotiated. They need not be unfair.

In practice, not all general conditions forming part of contracts are deposited in this Register, despite the fact that it is easy to use. Depositing general conditions is voluntary, except for specific sectors which can be determined by the Government.

In those cases in which general conditions are deposited, the party who deposits them often refers to the fact that they are deposited in this Register when concluding other contracts in future. Thus instead of reproducing them in future contracts, there is simply a reference to the fact that they have been deposited in the Register of General Contract Conditions. Many users who have signed a contract containing general contract conditions do not know exactly which conditions are binding, thus it may be vital to know what the terms of the contract were, to what they commit the user, how they can obtain release from them subsequently and the consequences of this.

2.- Judgments handed down by Courts declaring that certain clauses in these standard contracts are null and void

These are final judgments in favour of the complainant in cases brought by private individuals (individual actions) or by a consumer organisation representing a number of private individuals (class actions).

Once a final judgment has been registered, it affects other procedures involving identical clauses.

A single judgement declaring certain clauses to be unfair can resolve thousands of complaints, and if the same unfair clause is subsequently used, it should not be necessary to take further legal action, provided that the case involves the same party who set out these clauses originally. Hence the importance of publishing such judgments in this Register.

The eminently legal nature of this Register derives from the effects which registration confers on a legal declaration that a clause is null and void. Registration of a clause as unfair produces effects with respect to third parties. The Register provides that, where a final judgment has been registered, and the clauses declared null and void as a result of an individual or class action continue to be used, the Registrar can take note of the persistent use of such clauses and report this to the Ministry of Justice.

2.- Legislation governing the Register of General Contract Conditions

The 1998 Law on General Conditions established the Register of General Contract Conditions, entrusting it to the Property and Business Registrars. It forms part of the Movable Property Register.

3.- Organisation

The Register of General Contract Conditions is one Section of the Movable Property Register. The Register can be consulted using the links indicated at the bottom of this page.

4.- Is access to the Spanish Register of General Contract Conditions free of charge?

Yes.

5.- Consulting the Business Register via the Internet

Please refer to the 'Useful links' indicated below. The procedure is very simple - just follow the instructions on the web page below:

  • Link: Link opens in new windowhttps://www.registradores.org
  • Then click on: 'Consult Register General Conditions' (Consulta Registro Condiciones Generales).
  • Then select your area of interest.

6.- Useful links

Last update: 29/06/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - France

On this page you will find information regarding the options available for consulting business registers in France.

What do business registers in France offer?

Local business and companies registers (registres du commerce et des sociétés - RCS) are kept by registrars (greffiers) of the commercial courts (tribunaux de commerce) in mainland France, by the mixed commercial courts (tribunaux mixtes de commerce) in the overseas departments and regions, and by registrars of the combined courts with commercial jurisdiction (tribunaux judiciaires à compétence commerciale) in the departments of Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin and Moselle. The registration, amendment and removal declarations made by undertakings in the business and companies registers are checked by the registrars to ensure that the statements comply with the laws and regulations and correspond to the supporting documents and documents attached as annexes. These checks on the substantive and formal requirements are carried out under the supervision of the president or of a judge entrusted with that task who has jurisdiction to settle any disputes between the taxable person and the registrar.

The Kbis, which is an extract from the commercial and companies register, is an undertaking’s ‘ID card’ and contains all the information that the undertaking is required to declare. The objective of the Kbis extract is to ensure legal certainty with regard to commercial transactions by providing any interested party with information on the legal structure of the undertaking, its directors, its activity, the place where the activity is carried out and how the undertaking operates. It also states whether or not collective insolvency proceedings have been brought against it. This official document (acte authentique), issued and signed by the court registrar, is deemed to be authentic unless a plea for forgery is entered.

At national level, a national business and companies register (registre national du commerce et des sociétés - RNCS) is kept by the National Institute for Industrial Property (Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle - INPI). This national register centralises all the information and documents that have been checked and validated by the registrars and entered in the commercial and companies registers kept in each registry. The INPI is responsible for disseminating and making available to the public free of charge the technical, business and financial information contained in the RNCS, for the purpose of further use.

The Link opens in new windowInfogreffe website is the dissemination platform for all business and companies registers (of mainland France, including Alsace-Moselle, and of the overseas departments and regions). The Infogreffe.nc website provides access to the legal information of undertakings in New Caledonia. The Infogreffe website also enables various formalities (registration, amendment, removal and filing of annual accounts) to be carried out online. The service is provided in French and English.

The Link opens in new windowINPI website makes it possible to access, via the DATA INPI portal and as open data, the records of registrations, amendments and removals and companies’ annual accounts.

Official Bulletin of Civil and Commercial Announcements (Bulletin officiel des annonces civiles et commerciales - BODACC)

The Link opens in new windowBODACC is the official bulletin for publication of the documents recorded in the business and companies register, from the establishment of an undertaking to its removal, in particular as regards sales and transfers, collective insolvency proceedings and the filing of accounts. The documents in question are sent to the BODACC without the interested parties having to take any action or initiative. Announcements in the BODACC are made under the responsibility of the registrar who receives the information.

Publication in the BODACC, which ensures the widest possible dissemination of registrations in the business and companies registers, falls within the remit of the Link opens in new windowOffice of Legal and Administrative Information (Direction de l’information légale et administrative - Dila).

Is access to a business register free of charge?

The Infogreffe website provides access to certain information on businesses listed on it free of charge. The extracts from the business and companies register and the documents annexed thereto may be obtained subject to a fee set by the State.

Access to the INPI’s RNCS data via the DATA INPI portal is free of charge. The further use of such data is subject to a licence.

Since 1 July 2015, the BODACC has been distributed solely by electronic means. The content of the website (i.e. the BODACC announcements) has been free of charge since July 2011.

Lastly, a new digital access portal was set up in June 2016, called « Link opens in new windowPortail de la Publicité Légale des Entreprises» [public portal giving access to companies' legal information]. It enables users to access, via a single interface, legal advertising and information published on the following three websites:

Link opens in new windowhttps://www.infogreffe.fr/

Link opens in new windowhttps://actulegales.fr/

Link opens in new windowhttps://www.bodacc.fr/.

How to search a business register in France?

On the Infogreffe website you can search for a business by:

  • its name,
  • the name of its directors and administrators,
  • the town or administrative département where it is domiciled or has its headquarters or where it has its business units,
  • its SIREN number (Business Register Identification System - Système d’Identification du Répertoire des Entreprises),
  • its registration number in the business and companies register.

On the DATA INPI website you can search for an undertaking using its SIREN number, company name, brand name, director or the name of the municipality of the undertaking’s head office, or using words contained in the description of the undertaking’s activity.

On the BODACC website you can search for a notice relating to an undertaking using its SIREN number or its company name.

Related Links

Link opens in new windowRegistre de Commerce européen (European Business Register)

Link opens in new windowInfogreffe

Link opens in new windowINPI

Link opens in new windowCNGTC

Link opens in new windowBODACC

Link opens in new windowPPLE

Last update: 22/02/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Please note that the original language version of this page Croatian has been amended recently. The language version you are now viewing is currently being prepared by our translators.

Business registers in Member States - Croatia

In the Republic of Croatia the court register is managed by the commercial courts (trgovački sudovi).

Court register (Sudski registar)

The court register is a public book containing data and documents on entities which have to be entered in the register by law. Each court that carries out registration is responsible for the authenticity of its entries in the register. The following are entered in the register: public trading companies (javna trgovačka društva), limited partnerships (komanditna društva), economic interest groupings (gospodarska interesna udruženja), joint-stock companies (dionička društva), limited liability companies (društva s ograničenom odgovornošću), sole traders (trgovci pojedinci), European companies (SEs), European Economic Interest Groupings (EEIGs), European Cooperative Societies (SCEs), institutions (ustanove), communities of institutions (zajednice ustanova), cooperatives (zadruge), unions of cooperatives (savezi zadruga), credit unions (kreditne unije), simple limited liability companies (jednostavna društva s ograničenom odgovornošću (j.d.o.o.)) and other persons that have to be registered by law. Subsidiaries are entered in the register if this is required by law.

The register contains no data on artisans or associations.

Without having to prove a legitimate interest, anyone is entitled to examine the information entered in the general book, the documents on which an entry is based and the other documents and information stored in the collection of documents (except for documents that the law states are not subject to the public-domain principle).Anyone may also request an extract, a certified copy or a transcript of documents and data stored in the collection of documents.

Register

Information concerning entry in the register and the publication of data on registered entities

The main pieces of legislation governing the establishment of entities subject to registration and their entry in the register are: the Court Register Act (Zakon o sudskom registru) (hereinafter ‘ZSR’), the Trading Companies Act (Zakon o trgovačkim društvima) (hereinafter ‘ZTD’) and the Rules on the method of making an entry in the court register (Pravilnik o načinu upisa u sudski registar). The data stipulated by law, and any changes to such data, are entered in the register on the basis of these laws.

Data on registered entities are accessible 24 hours a day and may be consulted free of charge on the Link opens in new windowwebsite of the court register.

Launch of the registration procedure

The procedure for making an entry in the register is launched by a written application for data to be entered, or for the data of an entry to be amended, which is delivered on paper or electronically to the court of registration. An application must be submitted to a court within 15 days from the date on which the conditions for entry are met, except where the law provides otherwise. A court may launch the procedure ex officio where this is provided for by law.

Notaries may communicate electronically with the court that is carrying out registration, in accordance with their powers and the provisions of the ZSR.

There is a simplified procedure for registering a simple limited liability company (j.d.o.o.) (a company with no more than three members, a one-member management board and minimum share capital of HRK 10.00). In order to be established in this way, such companies must use the forms drawn up by a notary.

The following persons are authorised to submit applications for entry in the register:

  • Notaries (who are authorised to submit applications electronically and to issue extracts, copies and transcripts under Article 4(2) ZSR).
  • Persons who are authorised by law to propose entries in the register (personally or through an authorised representative).
  • Persons who deal with matters of HITRO.HR offices (who are authorised to submit applications for the establishment of trading companies via the e-Tvrtka system, in accordance with the powers laid down in separate regulations).

Effect of an entry

An entry takes legal effect for the registered entity on the day following the entry in the register (except where the law provides otherwise) and takes legal effect for third parties on the day on which it is published.

No person may claim that they do not know data entered in the general book of the register which have been published in the manner stipulated by the ZSR.

Any person may cite an entry in the register regarding legally settled data and facts which are entered in the register in accordance with the law, except for a person who is proved to have known that the relevant data in the entry in the register did not correspond to reality. The actions undertaken by a third party before the sixteenth day following the date of publication of an entry in the register may not be opposed on the basis of the registered data or the documents referred to in the publication, if the third party can prove that he/she/it could not have known about them.

A person of good faith may not suffer damage for having relied on an entry in the register regarding legally settled data and facts.

Crimes and misdemeanours and the penalties imposed by courts that carry out registration

The crimes, misdemeanours and the penalties imposed by courts that carry out registration are laid down in Articles 624 to 632 ZTD, and the launch of a procedure for warning and punishing persons who had a duty to fulfil legal obligations concerning the submission of an application for entry in the register is governed by Articles 81 and 81a ZSR.

Last update: 06/09/2016

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Italy

This section provides you with an overview of Italy's business register.

What does the Italian business register contain by way of information?

Italy's Link opens in new windowRegistro delle Imprese is run by the Chambers of Commerce, with support from Unioncamere, under the supervision of a judge and the Ministry of Economic Development. The ICT infrastructure is run and maintained by Infocamere, a consortium of the Chambers of Commerce in public limited company form.

The register provides detailed information on businesses, such as:

  • complete names of companies
  • registered office
  • VAT number
  • activity and legal form
  • governing bodies
  • capital
  • legal representatives
  • powers of representatives
  • branches

It also provides access to public documents concerning companies, including:

  • full financial statements
  • instruments of incorporation
  • lists of shareholders

The Italian business register offers two types of reporting:

  1. Legal reporting
  • as guarantee of the existence of the company
  • to ensure that information can be relied upon in dealings with third parties(Article 2193 of the Civil Code)
  1. Economic reporting
  • for statistical and economic purposes

Is access to the Italian business register free of charge?

Access to the register and to a limited amount of information (such as name and address of company) is free of charge. However, on-line access to complete information is available only on request and against payment.

How reliable are the documents in the register?

In Italy the business register is kept by the relevant offices of the Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Crafts and Agriculture. These offices are called business register offices (uffici del Registro delle Imprese), and act under the oversight of a judge appointed by the court with jurisdiction for the place (who supervises the formal correctness of individual registrations) and under the administrative supervision of the Ministry of Economic Development.

Italy's business register was set up in its current form following a reform in 1993 (Article 8 of Law No 580 of 1993) implemented by a 1995 regulation (Decree of the President of the Republic No 581 of 1995).

With this reform the business register, hitherto kept purely in paper form at the record offices of commercial courts, was transferred to the Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Crafts and Agriculture so that they could run it in fully computerised form, making the information and documents contained therein fully and immediately available across the country.

These provisions were subsequently supplemented by Article 31 of Law No 340 of 2000, which made it mandatory for almost all types of enterprises (all companies in particular) to use a digital signature and computer tools for preparing applications for registration and the accompanying documents and for submitting them to the business registrar.

Following further changes in the legislation (Article 9 of Decree-Law No 7 of 2007), all types of enterprise, including sole traders, now correspond with the business register, for the purposes of reporting requirements, using digital signatures and electronic channels.

Before registering an enterprise, the relevant business register office checks (pursuant to Article 11(6) of Decree of the President of the Republic No 581 of 1995) that:

(a) the application is authentic;

(b) the application form is completed correctly;

(c) the act or fact for which registration is requested corresponds to legal requirements;

(d) the documents required by law are attached;

(e) any other legal conditions for registration are complied with.

We should also point out that almost all the documents relating to companies that are entered in the business register are drawn up by a notary. Article 11(4) of DPR No 581 of 1995 lays down that: ‘The document to be recorded shall be lodged in the original version, and in the case of a private deed not lodged with a notary the signature shall be authenticated In other cases an authentic copy shall be lodged. The extract shall be deposited in authentic form in accordance with Article 2718 of the Civil Code.’

Under Article 2193 of the Civil Code

  1. If information that must be registered by law is not registered, it may not be relied upon against third parties by whoever was required to apply for registration, unless they prove that the third parties had knowledge thereof.
  2. Third parties may not claim ignorance of information that must be registered by law once it has been registered.
  3. This is without prejudice to any specific provisions of law.

History of the Italian business register

The Italian business register was established in 1993.

Related Links

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register

Last update: 18/01/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Cyprus

This section of the page displays an introductory text concerning the Register of Companies of Cyprus.

The Companies Section deals with the registration, follow-up, control and striking-off of domestic companies, overseas companies, partnerships, business names and also comes under the Department of the Registrar of Companies and Official Receiver (DRCOR) of the Ministry of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism.

The services available on the internet are:

  • Documents and Applications are accessible for the Link opens in new windowCompanies Section.
  • Citizens can find out Link opens in new windowForms and Fees for each document and application form submitted.
  • There are Link opens in new windowStatistics about the Companies Section.

What does the Register of Companies offer?

Anyone can find out on-line whether a particular organisation is in the Register of Companies and its status (currently registered or struck off). It is possible to conduct an on-line search of the data of all companies and to inspect the documents in the companies' electronic files.

The Department of the Registrar of Companies and Official Receiver is responsible for the keeping of the register of companies.

Is access to the register of companies free?

On-line access to the register is free as regards the basic company information.

How reliable are the documents in the register?

The reliability of the documents in the register is secured in Chapter 113 of Companies Law, which ensure the validity of the information given to third parties on the basis of Article 3(a) of the European Directive 2009/101/EC, by the following Articles of the Law:

Article 365

Inspection, production and evidence of documents kept by registrar.

Article 365A

Notice from the Registrar on keeping records - Prevalence of particulars entered in the register or published in the Official Gazette of the Republic.

Article 365B(7)

The Registrar of Companies ensures that the instruments and the documents referred to in paragraph 2 are available via the intra‑EU electronic system of interconnection of registers in standard message format and are electronically accessible, ensuring compliance with minimum security requirements for data transmission.

Article 366

Enforcement of duty of company to make returns to registrar, including the Annual Report and the Financial Statement for each year (Articles 118 - 121).

How can you search in the Register?

You can search by the name and/or the company number. More guidelines on how to search appear on the search page

The Background of the Register

The on-line register of the Registrar of Companies and Official Receiver includes all organisations registered from 1923 until the present day, including foreign companies, partnerships and business names.

Related Links

Link opens in new windowDepartment of the Registrar of Companies and Official Receiver (Τμήμα Εφόρου Εταιρειών και Επίσημου Παραλήπτη)

Link opens in new windowMinistry of Energy, Commerce and Industry

Last update: 06/01/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Latvia

This section provides you with an overview of Latvia’s business register.

What does the Latvian business register offer?

The Link opens in new windowRegister of Enterprises of the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republikas Uzņēmumu reģistrs) is a Latvian public body which registers businesses (companies), traders, their branches and representative offices and changes in their articles of association, and carries out other activities provided for in legislation. The Register of Enterprises also registers mass media, associations and foundations, commercial pledges, controlling interests, matrimonial property agreements and public-private partnership agreements, political parties, arbitration bodies, trade unions, religious organisations and religious institutions, and insolvency proceedings.

Do you have to pay to consult the business register?

Yes, there is no free online business register in Latvia.

However, using the search functions available on the Link opens in new windowwebsite of the Register of Enterprises, the following basic information on legal entities entered in the registers maintained by the Register of Enterprises can be obtained free of charge:

  • type of legal entity;
  • registered office;
  • new or current name or trade name and previously registered or historical name or trade name;
  • registration number;
  • Single Euro Payment Area beneficiary identification code (if allocated);
  • date of registration;
  • date of deletion of the legal entity from the register (or the date of reorganisation if the reason for the deletion is a reorganisation);
  • deadline for registration of religious organisations that are re-registering;
  • and checks can be performed on officials entitled to represent a particular legal entity.

The Latvian Register of Enterprises allows the following information on all registered legal entities to be obtained free of charge as open data:

  • registration number;
  • name or trade name of the entity;
  • type of legal entity;
  • which register the entity is registered in;
  • date of registration;
  • information regarding deletion of the legal entity from the register or its reorganisation;
  • date of deletion of the legal entity from the register (or the date of reorganisation if the reason for the deletion is a reorganisation);
  • registered office;
  • area of activity of associations, foundations, and trade unions.

This information is provided in .csv, .txt or .xlsx data formats and it Link opens in new windowcan be accessed here. The user can choose the data format in accordance with its intended use. Data are updated on a daily basis.

All the entries in the business register are published electronically on the website of the Link opens in new windowofficial gazette Latvijas Vēstnesis. The same procedure applies to the publication of documents submitted separately.

How to request information from the Latvian business register

The Register of Enterprises can provide information on all registered legal entities and legal acts.

Information can be obtained from the Latvian Register of Enterprises free of charge, Link opens in new windowon the Register’s information website, where all current data are available without the need for authentication, whereas registered documents, documents attached to the registration files and all historical records can be accessed upon authentication with a Latvian national eID card, e-signature, bank identification devices or EIDAS authentication services (for EU citizens).

Where there is a need to obtain a statement from the Enterprise Register concerning a registered legal entity, legal fact (contract) or natural person, Link opens in new windowan information request form or application is submitted in person, by post, or to the Register’s official email address Link opens in new windowpasts@ur.gov.lv as an electronic document with a secure electronic signature and digital time stamp. The request must give details of the payment made to the Register of Enterprises (a document certifying payment, a copy of such a document, or an online banking printout). When requesting information, please indicate your preferred means of receiving it (by post or electronically).

The Register issues documents from legal entities (private limited liability companies (SIA), associations, political parties, etc.) or legal fact (commercial pledge or contract) registration and record files. Link opens in new windowDocuments from the public part of the registration file (as per the first paragraph of Article 415 of the Link opens in new windowLaw on the Enterprise Register of the Republic of Latvia may be obtained online on Link opens in new windowthe Enterprise Register’s information website without a certificate of authenticity, free of charge and immediately, if they have been attached to or scanned into the file.

To obtain a copy of the document with a certificate of authenticity, a completed information request form must be submitted or a free-format submission made. The issuing of copies of documents with a certificate of authenticity is a service subject to the payment of a fee. This service can be provided either by post or by email.

To obtain documents not referred to in the first paragraph of Article 415 of the Law on the Enterprise Register of the Republic of Latvia, in addition to the above, the written request must state the reason for the request and the purpose of use of the information.

Link opens in new windowA list of fees can be found on the internet.

How reliable are the documents included in the register?

As of 1 August 2021, all entries in the business register and all documents attached to the registration file which are in the business register and, in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 415 of the Law on the Enterprise Register of the Republic of Latvia, in the public part of the registration file are published electronically free of charge on the Link opens in new windowEnterprise Register's information website, thus ensuring their availability to the public online from the outset. All entries made in the business register prior to 31 July 2021 and any information concerning specific documents have been published in the Link opens in new windowofficial gazette Latvijas Vēstnesis.

Entries are deemed to have been published on (i.e. after midnight on) the day after they are made, and documents are deemed to have been published on (i.e. after midnight on) the day after they are attached to the registration file. Entries in the business register become binding on third parties only after their publication, unless the relevant information was known to the third party before publication. On the other hand, if a third party can show that they were not aware and could not have been aware of the published information, that information cannot be relied upon in respect of legal steps taken within 15 days of publication of the information.

If the information to be entered in the business register is recorded or published incorrectly, a third party may rely on the published information in relation to the party in whose interests the information was published, but not if the third party was aware that the information published in the business register did not correspond to the actual legal situation. For more detailed information please see Link opens in new windowArticles 11 and 12 of the Commercial Law.

How to contact the Latvian business register

Contact details:

Register of Enterprises of the Republic of Latvia
Pērses iela 2
Riga
Latvia
LV 1011

Telephone number for information: 67031703 (Please note that legal advice is not provided)

Email: Link opens in new windowpasts@ur.gov.lv

Visitors have the opportunity to meet the head of the institution, on the proviso that they specify the question or problem to be addressed, the time they wish to visit, and their contact details.

History of the Latvian business register

The Register of Enterprises of the Republic of Latvia was founded on 1 December 1990.

Links

Link opens in new windowRegister of Enterprises of the Republic of Latvia
Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register (access provided by Lursoft)

Last update: 20/09/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Lithuania

It is possible to search by the legal person’s code, name or part of its name.

This section provides an overview of Lithuania’s register of legal persons.

History of the national register establishment

When was it founded?

The register of legal persons, which replaced the former register of undertakings and separate registration systems for public organisations and other bodies, entered into operation on 1 January 2004.

The registration of legal persons in Lithuania started in October 1990 at municipal registry services, while public organisations were registered with separate ministries and other institutions.

When was it digitised?

Digitisation of the register of legal persons began in 1990. The register is now fully digitised.

What is the current applicable legislation?

The Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania, the Law on the register of legal persons, and laws regulating the activities of specific legal forms of legal persons, e.g. the Law on public limited companies, the regulations of the register of legal persons.

Other laws relating to the activities of legal persons, such as the Law on the insolvency of legal persons, etc., also apply.

What information does the business register offer?

Who has access to the register?

The data in the register of legal persons, the documents stored in the register and any other information submitted to the register are public. Any person who has submitted a request, indicating for what purpose and under what legal basis the data will be used, has the right to obtain data from the register of legal persons and copies of documents stored there.

What information does the register hold?

Which data types are stored? (Which entities are entered in the public register? Information on insolvency, financial reports ...)

The legal person’s code; its name; the address of the registered office; the bodies of the legal person: data on members of the legal person’s management bodies, its liquidators or insolvency administrators; data on the persons entitled to enter into transactions on behalf of the legal person; the rule allowing persons to act on behalf of the legal person; the restrictions on the activities of the legal person; the start and end dates of the financial year; the time period of the activities, if this period is limited; the legal person’s legal status (in bankruptcy, in liquidation, being restructured or reorganised); information that the legal person carries out the activity of a provider of a trust or company and administration services, a virtual currency exchange operator, or a deposit virtual currency wallet operator; when a public or private limited company has a single shareholder: data on the company’s shareholder, the date of acquisition of all the shares, the date of transfer of all or part of the company’s shares to other persons; data on members of the supervisory bodies; data on the founder of a branch or representative office of the legal person; the titles of annual financial reports or, in the cases laid down by law, the titles of annual consolidated financial reports, and the dates on which they were signed off and submitted to the register of legal persons, etc.

Which documents are being filed/stored (files, book of documents, statutes, general meetings minutes ...)?

Requests to register data; minutes and decisions of meetings of the participants; minutes and decisions of meetings of the collegiate management bodies; statutes/regulations; instruments of incorporation of branches and representative offices of foreign legal persons; sets of annual financial reports or, in the cases laid down by law, sets of annual consolidated financial reports; asset valuation reports, etc.

How can I perform a search (and what are the available search criteria)?

In person

A search may be carried out in person.

On the website of the register

A search may be carried out on the website of the register.

What are the available search criteria?

It is possible to search by the legal person’s code, name or part of its name.

How can I obtain documents?

Free of charge?

Documents cannot be obtained free of charge.

Upon a fee?

A fee in the amount set by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania is charged to obtain data, information and copies of documents from the register.

How can I obtain an extract from the register, certified copy or transcript of documents?

A certified extract from the register of legal persons may be ordered online via the self-service system, by e-mail, by post or by visiting a customer service department.

A certified copy of a document from the register of legal persons may be ordered by e-mail, by post or by visiting a customer service department. An uncertified copy of a document may be ordered and obtained online via the self-service system.

A fee set by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania is charged for issuing an extract or a copy of a document.

Registration procedure

How can I launch the registration procedure (how to submit applications to the register, certification of documents, type of documents which need to be attached)?

In person

The registration procedure may be started in person.

The following documents must be submitted to register a legal person in the register of legal persons:

  1. an application in the prescribed form to register a legal person;
  2. the instruments of incorporation of the legal person;
  3. other documents prescribed by law.

A notary or the Ministry of Justice checks the veracity of the data submitted to the register’s data processor, the compliance of the instruments of incorporation with regulatory requirements and whether it is possible to register or input the legal person, the branch or representative office, the amended data and instruments of incorporation, and branch or representative office regulations, because the obligations laid down in laws or an instrument of constitution have been fulfilled and the circumstances laid down in laws or instruments of incorporation have arisen.

Online

The most popular legal forms of legal person, such as private limited companies, small partnerships, individual enterprises, public bodies, associations, and charitable and support foundations, can be set up online. These account for around 80% of all legal persons registered in the register of legal persons.

Documents may be submitted electronically directly to the register’s data processor via the Centre of Registers’ customer self-service system, provided that the founder has a qualified electronic signature; documents are drawn up in compliance with approved templates (regulations, statutes, a deed of establishment or a memorandum of incorporation); there can be no intention to use the short-form name of the State (‘Lietuva’) in the legal person’s name; there is electronically signed proof of consent from the owners of the premises for the premises to be used to register the registered office, if the premises do not belong to the founder; the shares of a private limited company are paid by cash contribution; the objectives and areas of activity of an association, a public body or a charitable and support foundation are consistent with the classification of objectives and areas of activity of public legal persons; a charitable and support foundation does not hold endowment capital.

How are submitted applications reviewed?

When examining submitted documents, the register’s data processor determines whether:

  1. the submitted application to register a legal person (changes to the data and documents to be entered in the register, deletion of data) complies with the prescribed form, or all the documents have been submitted;
  2. the time limits referred to in Article 2.46(4) of the Civil Code have not been exceeded;
  3. the data and documents submitted to the register are mutually consistent, clear and not misleading;
  4. the form or content of the documents is not contrary to the law.

The register’s data processor may refuse to register a legal person only if one of the above circumstances is found.

If the application data and instruments of incorporation received have been certified by a notary or the Ministry of Justice, the register’s data processor does not verify the veracity of the data submitted or the compliance of the documents’ content with regulatory requirements.

Legal effects of the registration

Effect of entries on third parties according to Article 17 of Directive (EU) 2017/1132

The data and information in the register of legal persons are considered to be correct as long as they are not contested pursuant to the procedure laid down by laws of the Republic of Lithuania and legal acts of the European Union.

Discrepancies between the register entry and its publication

Publication is based on the certified entries in the register and there being no discrepancies. Notices are generated automatically in the information publication on the basis of the data entered in the register of legal persons.

Who has the responsibility for the accuracy of the records?

The management body of the legal person is responsible for the accuracy of the documents and data submitted and for their timely submission to the register’s data processor, unless otherwise prescribed by law or instruments of incorporation.

Data protection procedures

Procedures relating to the rights of the data subject regarding publishing and storing their personal data

The data, information and documents in the register are public. Any person may access the data, information and documents in the register in accordance with the procedure laid down by laws and the regulations of the register of legal persons. Recipients of the data may use the register’s data only for the purpose, to the extent and in the manner indicated when they received them. Personal data are processed in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

Contact information

Data processor of the register of legal persons – the State enterprise, the Centre of Registers.

Tel.Link opens in new window +370 5 268 8262

E-mail: Link opens in new windowinfo@registrucentras.lt

Useful links

Link opens in new windowhttps://www.registrucentras.lt/p/671

Link opens in new windowhttps://www.registrucentras.lt/en/

Last update: 11/08/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Please note that the original language version of this page French has been amended recently. The language version you are now viewing is currently being prepared by our translators.

Business registers in Member States - Luxembourg

This page provides you with information regarding the options available for consulting the business register of Luxembourg.

What does the business register of Luxembourg offer?

Link opens in new windowThe business register (Registre de Commerce et des Sociétés (RCS)) is an official directory of all the natural and legal persons in business and other bodies referred to by the amended Act of 19 December 2002.

The business register operates under the authority of the Minister for Justice. The task of managing the business register is entrusted by the Minister for Justice to an economic interest grouping, the Luxembourg Business Registers (formerly GIE RCSL), comprising the State, the Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) and the Chamber of Trades (Chambre des Métiers).

The aim of the business register is to:

  • ensure that persons for whom registration or listing is required by law can be identified, by keeping a permanent inventory,
  • provide greater security for transactions,
  • provide information to third parties.

The business register collects two types of data:

  • identification and legal data, such as the business or company name, its business activities, its registered capital, the composition of the board, the auditors, powers of signature and other data of this nature,
  • the annual accounts.

Contact

Office address

Postal address

Opening hours

14, rue Erasme
L-1468 Luxembourg - Kirchberg

Tel: (352) 26 428 -1

Fax: (+352) 26 42 85 55

Email: Link opens in new windowhelpdesk@lbr.lu

LUXEMBOURG BUSINESS REGISTERS
L-2961 Luxembourg

Monday to Friday, 9.00 to 12.00 and 13.30 to 16.00


Is access to the business register free of charge?

The files may be consulted in the business register offices free of charge.

A certain amount of information is available free of charge on the Luxembourg Business Registers website:

  • RCS number,
  • date of registration,
  • name,
  • legal form,
  • registered office address,
  • a list of documents filed since February 2006.

For a fee, it is possible to obtain:

  • an extract which provides an up-to-date summary of the data which a person on the business register must submit;
  • an electronic certified copy of the documents filed with the business register.

The Link opens in new windowprice table is available under the heading ‘General information - Prices’.

How to search the business register of Luxembourg

It is possible to perform a search of the business register pages on the website of Link opens in new windowLuxembourg Business Registers by:

  • name (or part of a name) or
  • the registration number of the listed person.

The search engine of the site then displays a list of names matching the search criteria.

On clicking on the name of any of the persons shown, the following information is displayed free of charge:

  • RCS number,
  • date of registration,
  • name,
  • legal form,
  • registered office address.

How reliable are the documents in the register?

Pursuant to Section 19-3 of the amended Act on the register of businesses and companies and on company accounts and annual financial statements of 19 December 2002 (loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2002 concernant le registre de commerce et des sociétés ainsi que la comptabilité et les comptes annuels des entreprises), documents and extracts of documents are enforceable vis-à-vis third parties only from the date on which they are published in the Online Compendium of Companies and Associations (Recueil électronique des sociétés et associations – RESA), unless the company can demonstrate that the third parties concerned were aware of them earlier. Third parties may, nevertheless, rely on documents and extracts that have not yet been published.

Where a transaction takes place before the sixteenth day following the date of publication, these documents and extracts of documents are not enforceable vis-à-vis third parties that can demonstrate that they had no way of knowing about them.

In the event of a discrepancy between the text that was filed and the text that was published by the RESA, the text published cannot be relied upon against third parties. However, third parties themselves may invoke it, unless the company can demonstrate that they were in fact aware of the text that was filed.

History of the business register of Luxembourg

The business register has existed since 1909.

Since 2003, it has operated under the authority of the Minister of Justice and its management is entrusted to the economic Interest grouping, Luxembourg Business Registers. Since that date, it has become fully computerised.

The documents filed with the business register since 1 January 2006 are systematically digitised and made available in electronic format for consultation on the website.

The documents filed since the creation of the business register in 1909 are in the process of being digitised and are made available to the public once they are ready.

The entire business register will then be available for consultation in electronic format.

Related links

Link opens in new windowLuxembourg Business Registers

Last update: 10/01/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Hungary

This section provides a brief overview of Hungary’s business register.

What does the Hungarian business register offer?

The business register contains data on registered companies and corporate documents, which serve as the basis for registration. The data in the business register (on the companies registered therein) is managed by the courts in their capacity as courts of registration. Company information and corporate documents are stored electronically. The data of companies registered at any Hungarian court of registration are available free of charge on the website of the Service of Company Information and Electronic Company Registration of the Ministry of Justice (Company Information Service, Link opens in new windowhttps://www.e-cegjegyzek.hu/).

You can access the following information (existing or no longer valid) that is present in the business register at the time of your request:

  • corporate registration number;
  • company name;
  • head office (székhely);
  • business facility(ies) (telephelyek);
  • branch(es) (fióktelepek);
  • activity(ies);
  • issued share capital;
  • tax number;
  • whether bankruptcy, liquidation or final settlement proceedings have been initiated;
  • whether a (former) executive officer or manager of a business association, pursuant to Section 3:22 of Act V of 2013 on the Civil Code, cannot be an executive officer or manager of another business association.

On the first day of each week, the following information is updated:

  1. All company data in the business register (stored company extract) (tárolt cégkivonat), plus data on requests for registration or changes in registration not yet incorporated in the register.
  2. Company information includes:
  • ownership status (members or shareholders) and the legal representatives of legal persons, business associations without legal personality (jogi személyiség nélküli gazdasági társaság), or other associations;
  • powers of representation and membership of the supervisory board, for natural persons.

On the first day of each week, the updated information can also be found using the search engine.

The business register stores company information also on the basis of other criteria (data that is no longer valid may also be accessed) and corporate documents may also be accessed in addition to company information. The data may be accessed at Courts of Registration and via the Company Information Service, while authentic or non-certified copies of corporate documents and company information can be obtained against payment of an administrative fee.

Is access to the Hungarian business register free of charge?

The contents of the Hungarian business register are accessible to the above mentioned extent, free of charge, at <Link opens in new windowhttps://www.e-cegjegyzek.hu/?ceginformacio>. Accessing all further content is subject to a charge.

How to search the Hungarian business register

Company information can be searched using one of the following criteria:

- company name;

- corporate registration number;

- tax number.

To which extent can the information in the register be relied upon?

The data referred to in Article 2 of Directive 2009/101/EC is accessible online free of charge, for companies registered in Hungary.

In Hungary, public company information is provided by the court of registration, the Company Information Service, or is published in the Company Gazette. The Company Gazette is the official journal of the Ministry of Justice, and can be accessed free of charge at Link opens in new windowhttp://www.e-cegkozlony.gov.hu/. When it publishes data from the business register relating to a joint-stock company or a limited liability company, the court of registration also publishes in the Company Gazette the company’s articles of association or any amendments thereto, which are uploaded daily.

The data in the business register is managed by the courts in their capacity as courts of registration. Company information and corporate documents are stored electronically. The data of companies registered at any Hungarian court of registration are available free of charge on the website of the Service of Company Information and Electronic Company Registration of the Ministry of Justice (Company Information Service, Link opens in new windowhttps://www.e-cegjegyzek.hu/).

History of the Hungarian business register

Since July 1993, when the National System of Company Information and Company Registration (Országos Céginformációs és Cégnyilvántartási Rendszer) became fully operational, data in the business register has been entered electronically by the courts.

The system response time between any two courts is only a matter of minutes.

Last update: 19/09/2016

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Please note that the original language version of this page Maltese has been amended recently. The language version you are now viewing is currently being prepared by our translators.

Business registers in Member States - Malta

This section provides an overview of Malta's business register.

What does the Maltese business register offer?

The Link opens in new windowMaltese business register includes general information on companies in Malta.

The Register is a part of the Link opens in new windowMalta Financial Services Authority (MFSA), which is legally responsible for keeping the national registry of companies up to date. The MFSA website provides information on financial services legislation, including:

  • Acts of Parliament and relevant Legal Notices (with links to the Link opens in new windowMaltese Ministry for Justice, Culture and Local Government);
  • Rules;
  • Licences;
  • Circulars;
  • Brochures;
  • Notices; and
  • other information issued by the MFSA together with other material pertinent to financial services regulation in Malta.

Is access to the Maltese business register free of charge?

General information on the Maltese business register is available to the public free of charge, although users are charged for access to some areas of the website.

The MFSA website is available to the public free of charge.

How to search the Maltese business register?

Registered users of the Registry's online system can access the Registry database free of charge. There are no subscription fees to become a registered user. There is a charge for downloading documents on individual companies from the website, but users can search the database for information free of charge. Anyone can therefore search for a company by entering its name, a part of its name or its registration number. Other information available free of charge includes the registered offices of the company and the names of its directors, company secretary and shareholders.

How reliable are the documents in the register?

The 1995 Companies Act, Chapter 386 of the Laws of Malta, is the main law governing Limited Liability Companies registered in Malta and includes provisions enabling third parties to rely on documents and other particulars in the register, as shown below:

All documents and statutory notices submitted by companies for registration are signed/authenticated by the signature of a director or company secretary of the company. Documents and statutory notices are received by the Registrar of Companies in good faith. The company officer signing is responsible for the content of the document. It is a criminal offence in Malta for a person to give a false declaration or statement in any document intended for any public authority in order to gain any advantage or benefit for himself or others.

History of the Maltese business register

Company law was introduced in Malta by the Commercial Partnerships Ordinance of 1962. The Register originally came under the Commerce Department, a Government department. It became a part of the Malta Financial Services Authority in 1997 following the introduction of the new Companies Act in 1995. All of the documents registered for existing companies were scanned and an electronic file was created for each company. Remote access to the companies database and the documents included therein was initially available via a direct dial-in system, which was updated to the internet in 2000. In late 2004 a new web-based system was launched, and in 2006 an electronic file system using digital signatures was introduced.

Related links

Link opens in new windowMaltese Registry of Companies

Link opens in new windowMalta Financial Services Authority

Link opens in new windowWebsite of the Ministry for Justice, Culture and Local Government

Last update: 04/05/2021

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Netherlands

This section provides you with an overview of the Dutch Business Register.

What information does the Dutch Business Register contain?

The Link opens in new windowDutch Business Register is owned and maintained by the Dutch Chamber of Commerce (Kamer van Koophandel), as authorised by the government through the Business Register Act.

The Register gives an overview of all relevant (legal) information on all economically relevant companies and legal persons in the Netherlands. All companies and legal persons are entered in the Register. This includes:

  • Companies (private and public limited companies: BVs and NVs)
  • Sole traders
  • Associations
  • Foundations
  • Professionals (e.g. lawyers, doctors, artists)
  • Owners’ associations
  • Churches
  • Government offices.

The amount of data registered varies according to the legal form of the organisation. The most important registered data are:

  • (Legally registered) Name
  • Other trading names
  • Legal form and registered office
  • Addresses
  • Directors
  • Persons with power of attorney
  • Persons employed
  • Establishment details
  • Contact details
  • Indication of activities (according to NACE classification).

According to Dutch law, the information in the Register is valid (and binding for third parties) unless otherwise indicated. The obligation to register (and register any changes) lies with the companies themselves. All changes must be registered within one week of their being made.

Registration in the Business Register does not form part of the process of establishing a company in the Netherlands. From a legal point of view, a company can exist in the Netherlands even without being registered. Thus, although it is illegal not to register, non-registration does not preclude a company from existing and acting as a company.

Dutch (un)limited companies also have to file their annual account with the Business Register. Most companies have only to file a balance sheet, while large companies must also file their profit and loss account.

Is access to the Dutch Business Register free of charge?

Basic information in the Dutch Business Register – such as contact details, the Chamber of Commerce number and the establishment number – is available free of charge via the Link opens in new windowChamber of Commerce website. A fee is charged for other types of information, e.g. official extracts, financial statements and other documents. You can find an Link opens in new windowoverview of the rates charged on the Chamber of Commerce website.

You can also download the Link opens in new windowChamber of Commerce Business Register app for free. This app allows you to obtain simple information from the Business Register.

To what extent can the documents in the Dutch Business Register be relied upon?

Everybody should be able to rely on the information contained in the Business Register. The Business Register contains authentic data. The quality of the data is guaranteed in such a way that the user can rely on them. The owner of a company is responsible for what is written about the company in the Business Register. Registered companies must always communicate any changes to this information. If such changes are not communicated, then the information contained in the Business register applies. This is known as third-party protection. Third parties acting in good faith should be able to rely on the registered data.

How can the Dutch Business Register be searched?

You can search the Link opens in new windowDutch Business Register by:

  • Trading name
  • Official Chamber of Commerce number
  • Address
  • Postal code area

History of the Dutch Business Register

Information dates from the start of the current Register (1920). Data are also available for older companies.

Related links

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register

Link opens in new windowChamber of Commerce

Link opens in new windowBusiness Register

Last update: 18/10/2021

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Austria

This section provides you with an overview of Austria’s business register.

History of the national register establishment

When was it founded?

Until 1990 the Austrian commercial register (Handelsregister) was kept in paper form. In 1991 it was replaced by the Firmenbuch, which is managed as an electronic database.

When was it digitised?

When the Handelsregister was replaced by the Firmenbuch in 1991 the data held in the principal register (Hauptbuch) was transferred to an electronic database. Since then all data, both current and historical (dating back to 1991), has been available electronically. Since 2005 the document archive (Urkundensammlung) of the commercial register has also been kept in electronic form.

What is the current applicable legislation?

The key legislation is laid down in the Commercial Register Act (Firmenbuchgesetz – FBG) and the Commercial Code (Unternehmensgesetzbuch – UGB).

What information does the business register offer?

Who has access to the register?

Anyone may access the commercial register database to obtain information on entries in the register. Both the principal register and the document archive can be accessed.

What information does the register hold?

The Link opens in new windowprincipal register of the commercial register contains information on all registered Austrian businesses. The documents on which those entries are based are stored in the document archive.

The purpose of the commercial register is to record and disclose facts that must be registered in accordance with the provisions of company law. These include a company’s commercial register number, business name, legal form, registered office and business address, as well as the persons authorised to represent it. In principle, changes to the facts entered in the commercial register must be notified to the court without delay (notification obligation).

Which data types are stored? (Which entities are entered in the public register? Information on insolvency, financial reports ...)

In accordance with Section 2 FBG, the following in particular must be entered in the principal register: all limited companies (private limited company (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung – Link opens in new windowGmbH), public limited company (Aktiengesellschaft – AG), European Company – SE), registered partnerships (general partnership (offene Gesellschaft – Link opens in new windowOG) and limited partnership (Kommanditgesellschaft – Link opens in new windowKG)) and cooperatives (including European Cooperative Societies – SCEs) that have their registered office in Austria. Civil-law partnerships (Link opens in new windowGesellschaften bürgerlichen Rechts – GesbR) are not entered in the commercial register, as they do not possess legal personality. Foreign legal entities must be entered in the commercial register if they operate a branch in Austria.

In principle, Link opens in new windowsole traders may be entered in the commercial register on a voluntary basis. Entry in the commercial register is compulsory only if the sole trader generates turnover in excess of EUR 700 000 in two consecutive financial years or turnover in excess of EUR 1 000 000 in any one year.

Which documents are being filed/stored (files, book of documents, statutes, general meetings minutes …)?

In addition to the entries in the commercial register’s principal register, numerous documents are stored in the document archive. These include, in particular, the articles of association of limited companies, the financial statements of companies with an obligation to prepare accounts and sample signatures of authorised representatives.

How can I perform a search (and what are the available search criteria)?

In person / On the website of the register.

What are the available search criteria?

An extract from the commercial register can be retrieved from the database by entering the commercial register number (Firmenbuchnummer). In principle, such an extract contains the data currently entered in the register. However, deleted (historical) data can also now be issued on request.

If the commercial register number is not known, it is possible to search using the name of the legal entity (Firma) or the name of a person who holds a particular office within the legal entity concerned (e.g. managing director).

All documents that have been stored electronically relating to a legal entity can also be retrieved via the document list (Urkundenliste).

See also the information under the question ‘How can I obtain an extract from the register, certified copy or transcript of documents?’

How can I obtain documents?

Free of charge? Upon a fee?

See the information under the question ‘How can I obtain an extract from the register, certified copy or transcript of documents?’

How can I obtain an extract from the register, certified copy or transcript of documents?

From the commercial register database it is possible to retrieve both commercial register extracts (from the principal register) and documents (from the document archive). The documents that are available for a legal entity can be seen in the document list. There is a charge for requesting data from the commercial register database, with the exception of the free summary information containing the main details about a legal entity.

If the company name or commercial register number of a legal entity is known, commercial register extracts and documents can be retrieved via ‘JustizOnline’, the digital information and service platform of the Austrian judiciary. For products subject to a charge you have to register using a mobile phone signature and must be able to make an online payment. The summary information mentioned above, on the other hand, can be accessed without having to fulfil any further conditions.

Permanent online access to the Austrian commercial register with all search options can be obtained via a Verrechnungsstelle. These are firms contracted by the Ministry of Justice to handle commercial register enquiries. All notarieslawyers and auditors and tax advisers (Wirtschaftstreuhänder) also have such online access. Requests for information from the commercial register database can also be submitted to the courts.

Registration procedure

How can I launch the registration procedure (how to submit applications to the register, certification of documents, type of documents which need to be attached)?

In person / Online

In principle, applications to the commercial register must be submitted in writing and the signatures of the applicants must usually be certified by a notary or court.

The entry that is being requested must be precisely indicated in the application. In many cases corresponding documents must also be enclosed with the application, some of which are subject to specific formal requirements. The articles of association of an AG or GmbH, for example, must always take the form of a notarial deed.

Applications may be submitted to the commercial register court in paper form or electronically. Specific forms are available for certain applications. See:

Link opens in new windowhttps://justizonline.gv.at/jop/web/formulare/kategorie/2

Link opens in new windowhttps://portal.justiz.gv.at/at.gv.justiz.formulare/Justiz/Firmenbuch.aspx

On this page it is not possible to provide details of all the formal and content requirements that applications to the commercial register must satisfy, in addition to the basic information set out above. If you require advice in this area, please contact a notary or lawyer.

How are submitted applications reviewed?

Applications are subject to a formal and substantive review by the competent commercial register court. These are the courts of first instance responsible for dealing with commercial matters (regional courts (Landesgerichte)). Territorial jurisdiction is determined based on the location of the head office or registered office of the legal entity that has been or is to be entered in the commercial register.

At the commercial register courts decisions are made by judges or judicial officers. If an application cannot be approved due to shortcomings, the court may ask the applicant to correct the application.

Legal effects of the registration

Effect of entries on third parties according to Article 17 of Directive (EU) 2017/1132

The effects of entries in the commercial register vis-à-vis third parties are regulated by Link opens in new windowSection 15 of the Commercial Code, which states that a fact which should have been entered in the commercial register, but was not, cannot be invoked by the company concerned against a third party, unless the third party was already aware of the fact in question (paragraph 1). Once a fact has been entered, a third party must accept the fact as binding on it. However, this does not apply to legal acts carried out within 15 days of entry, provided that the third party proves that they were neither aware nor ought to have been aware of the fact (paragraph 2). The company must also accept incorrect entries as binding on it vis-à-vis a third party in commercial transactions if it made the incorrect entry itself or did not delete an entry which it knew or should have known to be incorrect. However, the company does not have to accept incorrect entries as binding on it if it can prove either that the third party acted without relying on the entry, or that the third party knew it was incorrect or did not know as a result of gross negligence (paragraph 3).

The binding version of the articles of association of an AG or a GmbH is always that which appears in the commercial register, as any amendment to the articles of association has no legal effect until it is entered in the commercial register (Link opens in new windowSection 148(3) of the Public Limited Companies Act (Aktiengesetz – AktG), Link opens in new windowSection  49(2) of the Private Limited Companies Act (GmbH-Gesetz – GmbHG)).

Discrepancies between the register entry and its publication

As commercial register entries from the commercial register database are forwarded directly to the additional publication media (legal notices database (Ediktsdatei) and Wiener Zeitung Official Gazette) using an IT-supported process, discrepancies between the content of the commercial register entry and the content of the additional publication can be virtually excluded. Should a discrepancy nevertheless arise, the entry in the commercial register takes precedence.

Who has responsibility for the accuracy of the records?

In principle, every entrepreneur is obliged to ensure that the facts about him or her that are entered in the commercial register are correct and up to date. If such facts change, the commercial register must be notified without delay. If a person who is obliged to notify the commercial register of a fact fails to submit an application to that effect, he or she may be compelled to do so through the imposition of fines.

Data protection procedures

Procedures relating to the rights of the data subject regarding publishing and storing their personal data

Any data protection entitlements are governed primarily by the provisions of the judicial commercial register procedure (see Section 84 of the Court Organisation Act (Gerichtsorganisationsgesetz)).

Contact information

The commercial register court with territorial jurisdiction for a particular legal entity (see the information under the question ‘How are submitted applications reviewed?’) can be determined using the court search (Gerichtssuche) function on the ‘JustizOnline’ platform. See: Link opens in new windowhttps://justizonline.gv.at/jop/web/home

Useful links

Link opens in new windowhttps://www.justiz.gv.at/home/service/firmenbuch~36f.de.html

Link opens in new windowhttps://justizonline.gv.at/jop/web/firmenbuchabfrage

Last update: 26/09/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Poland

This section provides you with an overview of Poland's business register.

What does the Polish business register offer?

Link opens in new windowThe Polish Business Register (the National Court Register) is operated and managed by the Link opens in new windowPolish Ministry of Justice

It provides information about companies, foundations, associations and other entities.

More specifically, the register contains various types of information related to these entities:

  • National Court Register number (KRS number)
  • REGON number (the number in the central economic activity list)
  • Name
  • Legal character and status
  • Date of registration in the National Court Register
  • Address details
  • Important dates (dates of entry and removal)
  • Competent authorities
  • Persons entitled to representation.

Is access to the Polish business register free of charge?

Yes, access to the register is free.

How to search the Polish business register

You can search the Polish business register by using the following search terms:

  • National Court Register number (KRS number), or
  • The name of the entity.

How reliable are the documents contained in the register?

Under Polish law, the issue of protecting third parties in connection with the provision of information and documents covered by Directive 2009/101/EC is regulated in the Act of 20 August 1997 on the National Court Register (Journal of Laws 2013, item 1203).

In accordance with the provisions of the Act of 20 August 1997 on the National Court Register (Journal of Laws 2013, item 1203):

Article 12.
1. The data contained in the register may not be removed, unless the law provides otherwise.

2. If it appears that there is a register entry containing manifest errors or non-compliance with the order of the court, the court shall automatically correct the entry.

3. If the register contains data that are inadmissible in terms of the law, the registry court, after having given a hearing to the persons concerned at a meeting or after having ordered them to submit a written statement, shall automatically remove the data.

Article 13.
1. Register entries shall be subject to publication in the Economic and Court Journal, unless the law provides otherwise.

Article 14.
An entity that is required to submit an application for entry in the register may not, against third parties acting in good faith, invoke data which have not been entered in, or have been removed from, the register.

Article 15.
1. From the date of publication in the Economic and Court Journal, nobody may plead ignorance of published entries. However, with regard to acts carried out before the sixteenth day after publication, the entity entered in the register may not invoke the entry against a third party if the latter proves that it could not have been aware of the content of the entry.

2. In case of discrepancies between the register entry and its publication in the Economic and Court Journal, the register entry shall be legally binding. However, a third party may invoke the content published in the Economic and Court Journal, unless the registered entity proves that the third party was aware of the content of the register entry.

3. A third party may invoke documents and data for which the obligation of publication has not yet been satisfied, provided that non-publication does not deprive them of legal effect.

Article 17.
1. The data in the register shall be presumed to be correct.

2. If the data entered in the register do not conform to the entity's application, or if there is no application, the entity may not, against a third party acting in good faith, plead that the data are incorrect if it failed to immediately submit an application to amend, supplement or delete the entry.”

History of the Polish business register

The register has been in operation since January 2007.

Useful links

Link opens in new windowAct of 20 August 1997 on the National Court Register

Last update: 18/10/2016

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Portugal

This page provides you with an overview of Portugal’s business register.

Business register

In Portugal the business register is governed by the Business Register Code, adopted by Decree-Law No 403/86 of 3 December 1986.

Registration is the responsibility of business registry offices, which are external services of the Institute of Registrars and Notaries (IRN), itself under the aegis of the Ministry of Justice. Business registry offices can be found throughout the country. There are no geographical limitations on their area of jurisdiction.

The purpose of the business register is to publicise the legal situation of:

  • sole traders;
  • commercial companies;
  • civil-law companies having a commercial form;
  • individual establishments with limited liability (EIRL);
  • cooperatives;
  • public enterprises;
  • complementary company groups (ACE) and European Economic Interest Groups;
  • individuals and associations required by law to register.

Registration confers legal personality on commercial companies and is usually compulsory. Businesses must register within two months of the date of incorporation.

Facts can be registered only where supported legally by documentary evidence, which must be archived electronically. Documents in a foreign language are accepted only where translated as required by law, unless they record facts that are subject to transcription in the register, are written in English, French or Spanish, and the relevant official is fluent in that language.

Registration can be by transcription (the information that is relevant for the legal situation of the entities required to register is extracted from the documents submitted and summarised, and must be validated by a registrar or registry official) or by deposit (only for archiving documents relating to facts requiring registration).

What commercial companies and civil law companies having a commercial form are required to register:

incorporation;

decisions taken by the general meeting, where required by law, concerning purchases of assets by the company;

reverse split, split or transfer of shares in private limited liability companies or shares held by limited partners in limited partnerships;

commitments to alienate or encumber shares in general partnerships, limited partnerships or private limited liability companies, pre-emption agreements, where it has been agreed that they will have erga omnes effects, and pre-emption obligations attributed such effects by a testator in his or her last will and testament;

transfers of shares in general partnerships or shares held by limited partners in limited partnerships, the establishment of rights in rem to use and enjoy or charges over such shares and their transfer, modification or cancellation, and the attachment of rights over profits and liquidation quota;

establishment and transfer of usufruct, security, distraint, lien, attachment or seizure in criminal proceedings on shares or rights over them and any other acts or orders that affect the free disposal of such shares;

withdrawal or expulsion of partners from general partnerships and limited partnerships, the extinguishing of shares as a result of the death of a partner, and the admission of new partners with unlimited liability;

amortisation of shares and the expulsion or withdrawal of shareholders from private limited liability companies;

decisions on amortisation, conversion or redemption;

issuing of bonds by private offering, unless they are admitted to trading on a regulated securities market within the period of application for registration;

appointment and departure, for any reason other than the passage of time, of members of the board of directors and management boards or of the company secretary;

presentation of accounts by public limited companies, private limited liability companies and partnerships limited by shares, and by general partnerships and limited partnerships where so required, and consolidated accounts of companies required to present them;

change in registered office or transfer of registered office abroad;

plans for domestic or cross-border mergers or demergers,

plans to incorporate a European public limited-liability company by merger, plans to incorporate a European public limited-liability company by transformation of a public limited-liability company formed under national law, or plans to incorporate a holding European public limited-liability company together, in the latter case, with proof that the conditions for doing so are met;

any extension, domestic or cross-border merger, demerger, conversion or dissolving of a company, and any increase, reduction or repurchase of share capital, and any other amendment to a company’s articles of association;

appointment and departure, prior to the completion of liquidation, of company liquidators, as well as any change in liquidators’ statutory or contractual powers;

the completion of liquidation or the company’s resumption of operations;

decisions on maintaining total control by one company of another, in a company group, or termination of such situation;

subordination agreements, and any amendment or expiry thereof;

issuing of stock warrants, where this is by private offering by an entity that does not have any securities listed on a national regulated market, unless they are admitted to trading on a regulated securities market within the period of application for registration.

How to request registration and what it costs

You can request the registration of documents for entry in the business register in person at a business registry office, by mail or online (Link opens in new windowhttps://eportugal.gov.pt/en/espaco-empresa/empresa-online).

Costs vary depending on which facts you wish to register, and are revised regularly. The costs of registering the various acts can be consulted at: Link opens in new windowhttps://dre.pt/web/guest/legislacao-consolidada/-/lc/122322384/201906152048/73705012/diploma/indice.

How to consult information in the business register and what it costs

Any person may request extracts from the register and the documents archived, or obtain oral or written information about their content.

Information about registrations whose publication is mandatory is available free of charge at Link opens in new windowhttp://publicacoes.mj.pt/Pesquisa.aspx.

Registration can be proven only by an extract, which is valid for six months. Extracts can be made available on an electronic medium, and are valid for all legal purposes and before any public authority or private entity on the same terms as the paper version.

Fees are charged for extracts from the register and related documents, whether in paper or electronic form.

Access to electronic extracts is available for a subscription of EUR 25 a year and subscriptions for two, three or four years can be taken out for a corresponding fee. The cost can vary depending on which type of extract is required (registration, or one of two other possible types).

Requests can be made at Link opens in new windowhttps://eportugal.gov.pt/en/espaco-empresa/empresa-online.

Where requested, the information contained in the business register can be provided by way of an electronic certificate in English, with equivalent legal effects to the information provided in Portuguese.

Legal effects of the business register

Facts that have to be registered take effect as against third parties only after the date of registration. Facts that have to be registered and published (on the internet site Link opens in new windowhttp://publicacoes.mj.pt/Pesquisa.aspx) take effect as against third parties only after the date of publication.

Final registration by transcription constitutes a presumption that the legal situation exists, on the precise terms defined. For example, records of a commercial company (legal form, name, registered office, purpose, signatories, identification of members of company bodies, etc.) enjoy a presumption that the legal situation as mentioned in the register exists.

Registration by deposit does not enjoy this presumption; it serves as a public notification, and does not enjoy a presumption as to correctness.

Last update: 04/10/2021

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Romania

This section provides an overview of the Romanian Trade Register, kept by the Ministry of Justice – National Trade Register Office.

History of the national register establishment

When was it founded?

The Trade Register was set up in 1990, pursuant to Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register.

Under Government Emergency Order No 129 of 10 October 2002 amending Law No 26/1990 on the trade register and Government Emergency Order No 76/2001 concerning the simplification of certain administrative formalities for the registration and authorisation of operations performed by traders, Link opens in new windowthe National Trade Register Office in Romania is a public body with legal personality, under the authority of the Ministry of Justice. The Office is responsible for keeping, organising and managing the central computerised trade register.

There are a number of Trade Register offices under the authority of the National Trade Register Office, in Bucharest and in each of the 41 counties in Romania. They are responsible for keeping, organising and managing local trade registers.

When was it digitised?

A dedicated portal providing new online services to the business community and other interested persons was launched in the second half of 2011.

Objectives of the Link opens in new windowNational Trade Register Office:

  • informing the business community, public bodies, the media and other interested persons on operations in the Trade Register;
  • reducing the time needed to access information;
  • reducing congestion at the Trade Register offices;
  • reducing the time needed to submit registration documents to the Trade Register;
  • simplifying procedures for the registration of professionals, the provision of financial information, and requests for information and documents;
  • providing online applicants with real-time information on data in the Trade Register.

What is the current applicable legislation?

Link opens in new windowLaw No 26/1990

Link opens in new windowGovernment Emergency Order No 116 of 2009

Link opens in new windowLaw No 31/1990

Link opens in new windowGovernment Emergency Order No 44/2008

Link opens in new windowImplementing rules of 10 October 2008 on keeping trade registers

Link opens in new windowLaw No 359/2004

Link opens in new windowLaw No 129/2019

Link opens in new windowRules of organisation and functioning of the National Trade Register Office and the Trade Register offices attached to tribunals

Link opens in new windowDecision approving the charges and fees for certain operations performed by the National Trade Register Office and the Trade Register offices attached to tribunals

What information does the business register offer?

Who has the right to access the register?

Access to the information published on the Link opens in new windowONRC website is free of charge for any interested person and is ensured 24 hours a day. The website provides access to information on:

  • forms and documents required to enter records in the Trade Register and in the Central Beneficial Ownership Register;
  • the forms required and the means to issue certificates, how to obtain information, copies / certified copies, duplicates;
  • general information for persons interested in carrying out certain regulated activities, as applicable (professionals, natural persons, legal persons, public bodies and authorities, etc.);
  • legislation applicable to the Trade Register/Central Beneficial Ownership Register;
  • public interest information;
  • communications/press releases, events;
  • information on the processing of personal data;
  • ONRC/ORCT [Trade Register offices attached to tribunals] contact details (registered office address, e-mail, phone/fax number).

The Link opens in new windowTrade Register's website provides the following:

  1. documents;
  2. information and services organised into sections and services;
  3. information relating to the National Trade Register Office and the Trade Register offices attached to tribunals;
  4. various items of public information - free access;
  5. forms used by the institution;
  6. formalities for entering records in the Trade Register for each category of professional and operations;
  7. formalities for entering records in the Beneficial Ownership Register kept by the National Trade Register Office for legal persons who are required to apply to be listed in the Trade Register, except for public corporations as well as national enterprises and national companies;
  8. statistical data regarding the operations recorded.
    • history of the institution
    • ORC [Trade Register Office] network
    • forms (for professionals, etc.) and formalities
    • charges and fees for ONRC [National Trade Register Office] services
    • services
    • legislation
    • statistical data
    • media

►Access to the information on the Link opens in new windowe-services portal of the National Trade Register Office is free of charge, 24 hours a day, and granted after registration as a user (by creating a username and password), which is free of charge.

The information on the National Trade Register Office portal is organised by services provided free of charge or for a fee in accordance with the law in force.

The Trade Register records all documents, acts, mentions and the identity of the professionals concerned, the recording of which is required by law, and any other acts or documents expressly provided for by law.

The online services provided by the National Trade Register Office are available on its Link opens in new windowe-services portal, which was developed under the Sectoral Operational Programme ‘Increase of Economic Competitiveness’, ‘Investments for your future!’, under the project ‘Online services (e-Government) provided by the National Trade Register Office to the business community via a dedicated portal’.

The online services provided by the National Trade Register Office via the e-services portal include the following:

  • Infocert;
  • Recom online;
  • verification of availability of company name and online reservation of company name;
  • preliminary checks (availability and/or reservation of name/logo for legal/natural persons, sole proprietorships/family businesses);
  • entering records in the Trade Register and authorising legal persons;
  • updating the contact details of the companies registered in the Trade Register;
  • obtaining up-to-date information regarding the company's past activities, statistical data;
  • issuing documents (certificates);
  • state of the case;
  • notification of applications submitted to the Trade Register;
  • decisions postponing applications submitted to the Trade Register;
  • publication of information on the various situations of legal persons in the Trade Register Electronic Bulletin [Buletinul Electronic al Registrului Comerțului - BERC];
  • statistical data (operations in the central trade register, companies with foreign capital);
  • Trade Register offline form;
  • registration of the declaration on the beneficial owner of the legal person;
  • provision of information from the Central Beneficial Ownership Register.

The 'Recom online' service, which is a subscription-based component, is accessible after a contract has been concluded with the beneficial owner, 24 hours a day, and provides the following information on professionals, for a fee:

  • name and form of organisation;
  • identification information (order number in Trade Register, European Unique Identifier, Unique Registration Code, registered office/business address, company contact details (telephone, fax);
  • registered office/business (registered office attestation, date from which proof of registered office is valid, date of expiry of the proof of registered office, duration of registered office);
  • subscribed and paid-in capital;
  • main activity of the professional declared/authorised;
  • secondary activities of the professional declared/authorised;
  • data regarding the identification of the associated natural and legal persons;
  • data regarding the identification of the directors;
  • data regarding the logos;
  • data regarding branches/subsidiaries/subdivisions (registered office, telephone);
  • data regarding secondary offices/work sites (registered office, telephone);
  • data regarding registered offices and/or activities authorised under Article 15 of Law No 359/2004;
  • data regarding ownership;
  • data regarding arrangements with creditors;
  • data regarding facts covered by Article 21(e) to (h) of Law No 26/1990;
  • data regarding the other mentions;
  • data regarding the balance sheet (turnover, average number of employees, gross profit), where such information has been provided by the Ministry of Public Finance.

The services available free of charge include:

  • Recom online - the free component of the service;
  • eForms;
  • the online application to be listed in the professionals trade register;
  • the online registration of the declaration regarding the beneficial owners of legal persons;
  • online access to information in the Central Beneficial Ownership Register (for authorities/institutions with supervisory/control powers and reporting entities when applying Know Your Customer measures);
  • verification of availability of company name and online reservation of company name;
  • information about the status of applications for registration in the Trade Register;
  • consultation of the section regarding decisions to postpone the handling of applications for registration in the Trade Register;
  • access to certain public information (financial statements, voluntary dissolutions, statutory dissolutions, etc.) via the Trade Register Electronic Bulletin (BERC).

The main services provided by the Trade Register Electronic Bulletin are:

  • Consultation of the professionals’ articles published
  • Consultation of bulletins where the professionals’ articles are published
  • Issuance of the document attesting to the publication of an article (proof of publication)
  • Receipt of notification on articles published
  • Provision of reports of interest

IMPORTANT: All sections of the Link opens in new windowwebsite and the Link opens in new windowportal can be accessed free of charge, 24 hours a day.

► Access to the information recorded in the Trade Register

The information recorded in the Trade Register is provided and copies of related documents are issued in accordance with Article 4 of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented:

  1. The Trade Register is publicly available.
  2. The Trade Register Office must provide, at the expense of the requester, information, extracts from the register and certificates regarding the entries in the Trade Register and certificates confirming whether or not a given document or act has been recorded, copies and certified copies of the entries in the register and of records from the documents submitted, for a fee.
  3. The documents referred to in paragraph (2) may also be requested and issued by post.
  4. The documents listed in paragraph 2, in electronic format, with an extended electronic signature included, attached or linked, may be requested and issued by electronic means via the e-services portal of the National Trade Register Office. They may also be requested via the electronic Point of Single Contact (PSC) in accordance with Government Emergency Order No 49/2009 on the freedom of establishment of service providers and the freedom to provide services in Romania, approved as amended and supplemented by Law No 68/2010.
  5. The fees charged for the issue of copies and/or information, regardless of the issuance method, may not exceed the administrative costs incurred with the issuance thereof.

Article 41

  1. Electronic copies of the documents and information referred to in Article 4 shall also be made publicly available through the trade registers interconnection system, at the applicant’s expense.
  2. The fees charged for the issuance of copies and/or information from the Trade Register, through the trade registers interconnection system, shall not exceed the related administrative costs.

What information does the register hold?

Which data types are stored (entities entered in the public register, information on insolvency, financial reports…)?

In accordance with Law No 26/1990, the Trade Register contains information relating to registered professionals, as follows:

  • companies;
  • national companies;
  • national enterprises;
  • public corporations;
  • cooperative companies;
  • cooperative organisations;
  • economic interest groupings;
  • European economic interest groupings;
  • European companies;
  • European cooperative companies;
  • sole traders;
  • sole proprietorships;
  • family businesses, and
  • other natural or legal persons provided for by law.

The Trade Register records all documents, acts, mentions and the identity of the professionals concerned, the recording of which is required by law, and any other acts or documents expressly provided for by law.

Legal persons listed in the Trade Register or, where applicable, interested persons must submit the following documents to ORCT as entries to the Trade Register:

  1. the equity issue prospectus with a view to establishing the joint stock company through public subscription and to having its publication authorised by the ORCT Director/appointed person, as well as any amendment thereto;
  2. the equity issue prospectus with a view to increasing the share capital of joint stock companies through public subscription and to having its publication authorised by the ORCT Director/appointed person, as well as any amendment thereto;
  3. the decision of the managing body, where entry of such information in the Trade Register and publication are mandatory under the law;
  4. proof of extension of the time limit for legally holding the premises of the registered and/or secondary office;
  5. final liquidation and assets distribution statements and, where applicable, the compte rendu concerning the management work done by administrators and members of the board, if one or more of these persons is/are appointed as liquidators;
  6. the documents related to business operations;
  7. the registers and documents of the legal person deregistered, where there are no more associates/shareholders/members or where they refuse to hold them;
  8. the decision of the associates/shareholders general meeting on the company’s acquiring of assets from a founder or shareholder, where such entry is mandatory under the law on companies;
  9. the complaint against the resolution of the ORCT director/appointed person;
  10. the opposition filed against the associates/shareholders general meeting and the opposition filed against other acts expressly provided for by law;
  11. the draft merger or division;
  12. the specimen signature;
  13. the deregistration application filed by the person who considers itself harmed, by having entries added to the Trade Register;
  14. any other documents provided for by law to be mandatorily entered in the Trade Register.

The persons interested in submitting entries to the Trade Register regarding documents the publication of which is not mandatory under the law are to fill in, for these purposes, the type application, attaching thereto the documents concerned and the proof of payment of the applicable fee.

The following are to be recorded in the Trade Register:

  1. the report of the insolvency administrator or, where applicable, of the liquidator, stating the causes and circumstances which led to the debtor’s insolvency;
  2. the notification by the insolvency administrator on the initiation of the insolvency procedure;
  3. the copy of the reorganisation plan proposed;
  4. the notification by the liquidator on the initiation of bankruptcy proceedings under the general insolvency procedure and the simplified insolvency procedure;
  5. the final court judgment holding the statutory administrator liable to pay compensation;
  6. proceedings before the court and notification of the arrangement with creditors offered;
  7. the arrangement with creditors approved and endorsed;
  8. court judgments delivered under the insolvency procedure, which are communicated to ORCT under the law;
  9. other documents issued by courts or by the insolvency administrator/liquidator under the law.

The following entries shall be recorded in the Trade Register, based on the abovementioned documents, with regard to the professionals registered in the Trade Register, who are subject to the arrangement with creditors or the insolvency procedure:

  1. the initiation of the insolvency procedure;
  2. bankruptcy;
  3. the fact that the debtor has been deprived of its right to run the business;
  4. the fact that the statutory administrator has been held liable to pay compensation;
  5. the designation of the insolvency administrator or liquidator, where applicable;
  6. the designation of the special administrator;
  7. the replacement of the insolvency administrator/liquidator, where applicable;
  8. closure of the insolvency procedure;
  9. the debtor’s deregistration;
  10. the amendment of the debtor’s instruments of incorporation as a legal person, at the request of the insolvency administrator, under the final court judgment ascertaining the reorganisation plan;
  11. the submission of the arrangement with creditors offered;
  12. the approval of the arrangement with creditors;
  13. other mentions required by law, for debtors listed in the Trade Register, to which the insolvency procedure applies.

The Central Beneficial Ownership Register

As from the effective date of Law No 129/2019 on the prevention and combating of money laundering and terrorist financing, and amending and supplementing certain legislative acts, as subsequently amended and supplemented, the National Trade Register Office has had the obligation to keep the Central Beneficial Ownership Register, which lists the beneficial owners of legal persons who must apply to be recorded in the Trade Register, except for public corporations as well as national enterprises and national companies.

Access to the Central Beneficial Ownership Register is granted, in accordance with the rules on protection of personal data, to:

  1. authorities with supervisory and control powers, judicial bodies, in accordance with Law No 135/2010 on the Code of Criminal Procedure, as subsequently amended and supplemented, and to the Office, in a timely manner, without any restriction and without alerting the person concerned;
  2. reporting entities when applying Know Your Customer measures;
  3. any natural or legal person (for a fee).

Which documents are being filed/stored (files, book of documents, statutes, general meetings minutes…) ?

The registration of legal persons, sole traders, sole proprietorships and family businesses carrying out economic activities and having the registered office/business located within the tribunal jurisdiction entails that the Trade Register keeps records of the registration documents of the persons undergoing registration and the official archive of the incorporation or related amending documents and of other documents expressly provided for by law.

The archiving of documents substantiating the entries in the Trade Register consists in keeping and preserving, on paper and/or in electronic format, all of such documents, as well as the documents attesting to the entries made by registered persons, the annual financial statements, the report and, where applicable, the consolidated report of the management board and board of directors, respectively, the auditor’s report or the financial auditor’s report, where applicable, the consolidated annual financial statements and the registers of legal persons, which are submitted to the Trade Register.

The file of every professional listed in the Trade Register includes all documents submitted in connection with the registration or with any operation which is listed in the Trade Register under the law and the documents attesting to registration. The documents listed in the Trade Register with a view to carrying out certain pre-registration procedures required by law are kept in a separate folder. After registration, they are enclosed in the relevant professional’s folder.

The documents of natural and legal persons listed in the Trade Register are archived in compliance with the provisions of National Archiving Law No 16/1996, as republished.

How can I perform a search (and what are the available search criteria)?

On the website of the register

The interested person may search information on the ONRC website by typing a keyword in the search field.

What are the available search criteria?

The information available free of charge through the service Link opens in new windowRecom online can be searched using the following criteria:

  • name of the professional;
  • Trade Register number;
  • tax reference number;
  • county where the registered office/business is located.

General information for interested persons, which is made available free-of-charge through the Recom online service, includes:

  • name of the professional listed in the Trade Register;
  • Trade Register number;
  • European Unique Identifier (EUID);
  • tax reference number;
  • address of the registered office/business;
  • business state (e.g. active, dissolved, liquidated, bankrupt, deregistered and others);

How can I obtain documents?

Free of charge?

Information and documents concerning professionals listed in the Trade Register are issued free of charge to public authorities and institutions, with the exception of those fully funded from own revenues, to courts and prosecutor’s offices attached thereto, and to accredited diplomatic missions and other legal persons under the law.

The National Trade Register Office and the Trade Register offices attached to tribunals issue specific information recorded in the Trade Register, free of charge, to journalists and mass media representatives. The information released to journalists and mass media representatives may be used only to inform public opinion.

For a fee?

The Trade Register Office issues, at the expense of the requester, information, extracts from the register and certificates regarding the entries in the Trade Register and certificates confirming whether or not a given document or act has been recorded, copies and certified copies of the entries in the register and of records from the documents submitted, for a fee. The documents concerned may also be requested and issued by post.

How can I obtain an extract from the register, certified copy or transcript of documents?

Means to access the information:

  • online, by accessing Link opens in new windowthe InfoCert service (an electronic signature is not required; payment is made only by card)
  • online, via the ONRC portal, Link opens in new windowhere (an electronic signature is required; payment is made by card or money order)
  • e-mail address: Link opens in new windowonrc@onrc.ro (payment by money order or at the cashier counter)
  • fax No +40 213160829 (payment by money order or at the cashier counter)
  • by post (payment by money order; the additional fee of RON 7.68 is charged)
  • at the front desk – ONRC and Link opens in new windowTrade Register offices attached to tribunals.

►The InfoCert service enables the issue of online certificates and/or the provision of information from the Trade Register. The service may be accessed through the Link opens in new windowONRC portal, in the section of Information (Informații) - Certificates (Certificate constatatoare) or Trade Register Information and copies of certificates (Informații RC și copii certificate), and payment is made online by Visa or Mastercard. The InfoCert e-service automatically retrieves documents with electronic signature, without the controller’s action, 24 hours a day, all weekdays, and payment is made electronically by card, after which the requester receives an electronic invoice, not needing any electronic signature for this purpose.

► Via the Recom online service, which is the subscription-based component, accessible after conclusion of a contract with the beneficiary, 24 hours a day, certifications and/or information from the Trade Register may be obtained online.

Means to obtain a copy of a document from the archive:

Means to obtain duplicates of registration certificates and/or certificates attesting to the submission of declarations on honour for authorisation of business

Registration procedure

How can I launch the registration procedure (how to submit applications to the register, how to certify documents, type of documents required to be attached)?

In person

The application for entries, the documents required in original or in a copy certified by the interested party, as provided for by law, and, where applicable, proof of payment of legal fees, which are all numbered, are to be submitted by the applicant directly to the front desk or delivered by post/courier or by electronic means.

The application for registering a legal person in the Trade Register is signed by the legal representative of that person, who is designated under the document of incorporation, or by his/her agent, under an authentic special/general proxy or power of attorney or by any associate/shareholder/board member or his/her agent.

The application for recording the subsidy of a legal person, which is located in Romania or abroad, is signed by the representative of the legal person, who conducts directly the business of the subsidy, in person or by his/her agent, with an authentic special/general proxy or power of attorney.

The application for registering a sole trader and a sole proprietorship is submitted by the natural person who applies for registration as a sole trader or holder of the sole proprietorship, in person or by his/her agent, with an authentic special/general proxy, or by the lawyer, with a power of attorney.

The application for registering a family business is submitted by the representative designated under the document of incorporation or by his/her agent, with an authentic special/general proxy, or by the lawyer, with a power of attorney.

The documents required to be registered, recorded with mentions and, where applicable, published by ORCT are to be typed by the applicant in Romanian, legible, with no deletions or additions, otherwise the application is rejected as a penalty.

The documents required to substantiate the application for registration, which are classified as official acts, are to be submitted in original or in duly certified copies under the law.

Online

The application for registration and the documents required by law may be sent electronically, i.e. via Link opens in new windowthe e-service portal or by Link opens in new windowe-mail, with a qualified electronic signature included, attached or linked.

How are submitted applications reviewed?

The registered applications are to be settled by the ORCT director/appointed person or, where applicable, by courts.

If the ORCT director/appointed person deems that, in order to settle the application, additional documents and/or expert reports are needed, or they find that certain documents submitted in support of the application fail to meet the legal requirements in terms of substance or form, or that certain ascertaining documents are missing or the statutory publication fees have not been paid, they may set a new settlement time limit in order for the application to be supplemented accordingly, under Government Emergency Order No 116/2009 establishing certain measures for the performance of Trade Register operations, as approved as amended and supplemented by Law No 84/2010, as subsequently amended.

The time limit for settlement and issue of documents attesting to registration is to be extended accordingly by the period approved by the ORCT director/appointed person for the applicant to submit the documents or to sort out the irregularities found and stated by the ORCT director/appointed person in the conclusion/decision ordering the postponement of the resolution of the application and the approval of the time limit.

If the applicant fails to sort out the irregularities found on the file or if the ORCT director/appointed person finds that the applicant’s request fails to meet the legal requirements, the ORCT director/appointed person rejects the application for registration, under Government Emergency Order No 116/2009 establishing certain measures for the performance of Trade Register operations, as approved as amended and supplemented by Law No 84/2010, as subsequently amended.

If the applicant relinquishes the resolution of the application referred to the Trade Register offices attached to tribunals and if the applications for registration are rejected, the fee for publication in the Official Gazette of Romania is to be returned if it has been paid.

The applicant and/or their representative may appear, by the time limit for resolution of the request, in order to substantiate it, based on the request for a hearing lodged with the application for registration or, for applications postponed, lodged at least one day before the time limit for resolution.

Legal effects of the registration

Effect of entries on third parties under Article 17 of the Directive (EU) 2017/1132

The national provisions below state that third parties can rely on the information and documents in the Trade Register, in accordance with Article 17 of Directive (EU) of 2017/1132 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2017 relating to certain aspects of company law:

  1. Article 1(1) of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, states that ‘before starting an economic activity, the following natural or legal persons shall apply to be registered or entered, as applicable, in the Trade Register: sole traders, sole proprietorships and family businesses, companies, national enterprises and national companies, public corporations, economic interest groupings, cooperative companies, cooperative organisations, European companies, European cooperative companies, and European economic interest groupings with main offices in Romania, and other natural or legal persons as provided for by law.’
    Furthermore, Article 1(2) of the aforementioned Law states that ‘in the course of their activity or at the end thereof, the natural and legal persons referred to in paragraph (1) shall request that mentions relating to documents and acts subject to statutory registration be entered in the same register. ’
  2. The information recorded in the Trade Register is provided and copies of related documents are issued in accordance with Article 4 of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented:
    1. The Trade Register is publicly available.
    2. The Trade Register Office must provide, at the expense of the requester, information, extracts from the register and certificates regarding the entries in the Trade Register and certificates confirming whether or not a given document or act has been recorded, copies and certified copies of the entries in the register and of records from the documents submitted, for a fee.
    3. The documents referred to in paragraph (2) may also be requested and issued by post.
    4. The documents listed in paragraph 2, in electronic format, with an extended electronic signature included, attached or linked, may be requested and issued by electronic means via the e-services portal of the National Trade Register Office. They may also be requested via the electronic Point of Single Contact (PSC) in accordance with Government Emergency Order No 49/2009 on the freedom of establishment of service providers and the freedom to provide services in Romania, approved as amended and supplemented by Law No 68/2010.
    5. The fees charged for the issue of copies and/or information, regardless of the issuance method, may not exceed the administrative costs incurred with the issuance thereof.

Article 41

  1. Electronic copies of the documents and information referred to in Article 4 shall also be made publicly available through the trade registers interconnection system, at the applicant’s expense.
  2. The fees charged for the issuance of copies and/or information from the Trade Register, through the trade registers interconnection system, shall not exceed the related administrative costs.

The enforceability of the documents and acts of persons subject to the obligation to be entered in the Trade Register is provided for under Article 5 of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented:

  1. Registration and mentions may be enforced against third parties as from the date they are entered in the Trade Register or published in Part IV of the Official Gazette of Romania, or in another publication, as provided for by law.
  2. Persons subject to the obligation to request that a record be entered may not claim enforceability against third parties of unrecorded documents or acts, unless they can prove that the latter were aware of those documents and acts.
  3. The National Trade Register Office shall publish on its website and on the e-services portal and submit for publication on the European e-Justice Portal up-to-date information on national law as regards the publicization and enforceability against third parties of documents, acts and mentions of persons required to register in the business register.’

Moreover, companies are subject to the following special provisions in this respect, i.e. Articles 50 to 53 of Companies Law No 31/1990, republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented:

Article 50

  1. Documents or acts that have not been publicised as stipulated by law cannot be enforced against third parties, unless the company can prove that the latter were aware of them.
  2. Any operations carried out by a company before the 16th day from publication in Part IV of the Official Gazette of Romania of the report of the hearing judge (at present, applications can be decided on by the Director of the Trade Register Office/person appointed by the Director-General of the National Trade Register Office, in accordance with Government Emergency Order No 116/2009, as amended) shall not be enforceable against third parties, if the latter can prove that it was impossible to know of such operations.

Article 51
However, third parties may invoke documents or acts that have not been publicised, unless the fact that they were not publicised cancels their effect.
Article 52
(1) In the event of inconsistency between the text submitted to the Trade Register office and the text published in Part IV of the Official Gazette of Romania, or in the newspapers, the company cannot enforce the published text against third parties. Third parties may enforce the published text against the company, unless the company can prove that they were aware of the text submitted to the Trade Register office.

Article 12(1) of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, stipulates that:

  1. The Trade Register shall consist of a register for recording legal persons that are companies, national companies or national enterprises, public corporations, economic interest groupings, cooperative organisations, European companies, European economic interest groupings, or other legal persons expressly provided for by law with main or secondary offices in Romania, a register for recording legal persons that are cooperative companies or European cooperative companies with main or secondary offices in Romania, and a register for recording sole traders, sole proprietorships and family businesses with professional or secondary offices in Romania. These registers shall be kept in a computerised system.
  2. Article 6(1) of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, in conjunction with Article 1 of Government Emergency Order No 116/2009 establishing certain measures for the performance of Trade Register operations, as approved as amended and supplemented by Law No 84/2010, as subsequently amended and supplemented, states that ‘records are entered in the Trade Register based on the decision of the Director of the Trade Register Office/person appointed by the Director-General of the National Trade Register Office or, where applicable, a final court judgment, except where the law provides otherwise’.
  3. Article 26(1) of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, states that ‘The date of recording in the Trade Register shall be the effective date of entry in the Register.
  4. Article 26(1) of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, states that ‘records in the Trade Register shall be entered within 24 hours of the date of the decision issued by the Director of the Trade Register office/person appointed by the Director-General of the National Trade Register Office, and in the case of registration of a professional, within 24 hours of the date of the decision authorising registration’.
  5. Under Article 51(2) of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, ‘records in the Trade Register shall be entered electronically, both at the Trade Register offices attached to tribunals and in the central computerised register.

Discrepancies between the register entry and its publication

Entries in the Trade Register ensure the enforceability of documents against third parties, except where the law provides for the cumulative condition of their publication in Official Gazette of Romania and in the Official Journal of the European Union, where applicable.

Persons subject to the obligation to request that a record be entered may not claim enforceability against third parties of unrecorded documents or acts, unless they can prove that the latter were aware of those documents and acts.

Thus, after processing the entries in the Trade Register, ORCT sends the documents required by law, of its own motion, for publication on the ONRC website and/or on its e-services portal or, where applicable, in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part IV or VII, and in the Official Journal of the European Union, as the case may be, at the applicant’s expense.

Documents or acts that have not been publicised as stipulated by law cannot be enforced against third parties, unless the company can prove that the latter were aware of them.

Any operations carried out by a company before the 16th day from publication in Part IV of the Official Gazette of Romania of the report of the hearing judge (at present, applications can be decided on by the Director of the Trade Register Office/person appointed by the Director-General of the National Trade Register Office, in accordance with Government Emergency Order No 116/2009, as amended) shall not be enforceable against third parties, if the latter can prove that it was impossible to know of such operations.

However, third parties may invoke documents or acts that have not been publicised, unless the fact that they were not publicised cancels their effect.
In the event of inconsistency between the text submitted to the Trade Register office and the text published in Part IV of the Official Gazette of Romania, or in the newspapers, the company cannot enforce the published text against third parties. Third parties may enforce the published text against the company, unless the company can prove that they were aware of the text submitted to the Trade Register office.

Who has the responsibility for the accuracy of the records?

Documents and acts required by law are listed in the Trade Register, where applicable, at the request of natural and/or legal persons subject to the registration obligation, of any other interested parties or on own motion.

The professional has the obligation to apply for entries to be made in the Trade Register under Article 21 of Law No 26/1990 within not more than 15 days from the date of the documents and acts subject to the registration obligation. Entries are made in the register also at the request of interested parties within not more than 30 days from the date when they have become aware of the document or act subject to registration.

The applicant, as defined by Law No 359/2004, as subsequently amended and supplemented, is held liable for the legality, authenticity, and accuracy of the data in the applications for registration and in the documents submitted in support thereof.

Article 6(1) of Law No 26/1990 on the Trade Register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, in conjunction with Article 1 of Government Emergency Order No 116/2009 on introducing certain measures relating to entering records in the Trade Register, approved with amendments and supplements by Law No 84/2010 states that ‘records shall be entered in the Trade Register based on the decision of the Director of the Trade Register Office/person appointed by the Director-General of the National Trade Register Office or, where applicable, a final court judgment, except where the law provides otherwise.

Records are entered in the Trade Register, where applicable:

  1. within 24 hours from the delivery of the conclusion by the delegated judge/resolution of the ORCT Director/appointed person or from the date when the court judgment on registration was served;
  2. within 24 hours from the delivery of the resolution by the ORCT Director/appointed person or from the date when the court judgment on entry of records was served;
  3. within 15 days from the date of receipt of the certified copy of the final court judgment on the documents and acts referred to in Article 21(e) to (g) of Law No 26/1990 on the trade register, as republished, as subsequently amended and supplemented, unless the law provides otherwise.

The resolutions of the ORCT Director/appointed person regarding any entry in the Trade Register are legally enforceable and subject only to opposition. The filing of the opposition does not suspend the enforcement of the resolution. The proceedings under which a decision is made to enter records in the Trade Register are carried out by the ORCT staff.

Data protection procedures

Procedures related to the rights of the data subject regarding publishing and storing their personal data

In carrying out their duties, as provided for in the legislative acts regulating the activity of the trade register, the National Trade Register Office and the Trade Register offices attached to tribunals/territorial offices collect and process data and information, including personal data, which are covered by
the provisions of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

As personal data controller, the National Trade Register Office has put in place adequate technical and organisational measures with the aim of ensuring compliance with all legal provisions on personal data protection and processing.

The personal data of a natural person is collected for definite, explicit and legitimate purposes and is not processed subsequently in a way that is incompatible with these purposes (the purpose limitation principle).

Personal data provided by applicants by completing/filing applications and by submitting acts/documents in support thereof is processed with a view to carrying out the main specific obligations/duties/functions of the Trade Register.

The information recorded in the central computerised Trade Register/integrated information system is stored for an unlimited period. Applications for registration (forms) in the Trade Register, which are filed for the purpose of registering the professional, of entering records in the register on the professionals’ documents and acts, as well as the documents submitted in support thereof are archived in the professional’s file (on paper and electronically).

Publication of documents issued as a result of entering records in the trade register/prepared by the helpdesk staff complies with the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation and such data is limited to the surname and forename, date and place of birth, nationality and country of residence of the persons concerned, unless the law provides otherwise.

Thus, in order to comply with the legal provisions on the protection of persons regarding the processing of personal data and free movement of such data, with regard to the information on the natural persons holding capacities/positions within a professional listed in the trade register, the documents issued to applicants, including copies/certified copies, contain only the surname and forename, data and place of birth, nationality and country of residence of those persons. As regards disclosure of other personal data, in addition to that listed above, that data may be issued only if the applicant is the data subject (the person whose personal data is processed) or if the applicant justifies a legitimate interest.

The National Trade Register Office ensures that data subjects exercise their rights under Regulation (EU) No 679/2016: right of information and access to and rectification or erasure of personal data, the right to restriction of processing, the right to data portability, the right to object, the right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing, including profiling, the right to lodge a complaint to the National Personal Data Processing Supervisory Authority [Autoritatea Națională de Supraveghere a Prelucrării Datelor cu Caracter Personal] (B-dul G-ral Gheorghe Magheru nr. 28-30, sector 1, Bucharest).

The abovementioned rights, subject to the requirements and exceptions under Regulation (EU) No 679/2016, may be exercised by sending a written request, duly dated and signed, by mail, to the following address: Bucharest, Bd. Unirii, nr. 74, bl. J3b, tronson II+III, sector 3, post code: 030837 or by e-mail at: Link opens in new windowdatepersonale@onrc.ro.

Pursuant to Article 37 of the General Data Protection Regulation, a personal data protection officer has been appointed within the institution, whose contact details are posted on the website under Link opens in new windowPersonal data.

Contact details

Contact details are available Link opens in new windowhere.

Related links

Link opens in new windowOfficial website of Romania's Trade Register

Link opens in new windowE-services portal of Romania's National Trade Register Office

Last update: 20/09/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Please note that the original language version of this page Slovenian has been amended recently. The language version you are now viewing is currently being prepared by our translators.

Business registers in Member States - Slovenia

This section provides you with an overview of Slovenia's business register.

What does the Slovenian Business Register (Poslovni register Slovenije) offer?

The Slovenian Business Register (PRS) is managed by the Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Public Legal Records and Related Services (Agencija Republike Slovenije za javnopravne evidence in storitve – AJPES).

The Slovenian Business Register is the central public database of information on all businesses with a registered office in Slovenia which are engaged in gainful or not-for-profit activities and information on subsidiaries and other divisions of those businesses. The register also contains information on the subsidiaries of foreign businesses performing activities in Slovenia. The register includes the following categories:

  • companies (partnerships and corporations)
  • sole traders
  • legal entities governed by public law
  • legal entities governed by private law
  • societies
  • natural persons performing registered or regulated activities
  • subsidiaries and other divisions of businesses
  • main offices of foreign businesses
  • other units.

A range of registration data is available for each entry in the Slovenian Business Register (identification number, company name, tax number, details on representatives and founders, etc.).

  • direct access to information via the ePRS application, and
  • provision of information for re-use.

What does it include?

ePRS application

The Link opens in new windowePRS application allows users to access information on individual entries in the Slovenian business register for businesses engaged in economic activities within the Republic of Slovenia.

Is access to the Slovenian business register free of charge?

Access is free of charge, but users must log in to the portal (new users must register first).

How to search the Slovenian business register

Users must log in to the portal to be able to search the register. Data can be accessed by entering the search criteria in one or more fields, or by selecting the search criteria from the drop-down menu. The search criterion may be any of the following: data item, part of a data item (word), or beginning of a word. Searches are possible by identification number, tax number, company name, street name and number, municipality, etc.

Updating

Data are updated daily.

Provision of information for re-use:

AJPES provides the following services for the Link opens in new windowre-use of information from the business register:

  • daily, weekly or monthly delivery of data on all entries in long or short format,
  • monthly delivery of data on businesses listed in the court register (Sodni register) in long or short format,
  • monthly delivery of data on sole proprietors in long or short format,
  • delivery of data via an internet service in long, short or minimum format (see),
  • delivery of data based on a specific order in long or short format,
  • processing of collected data according to criteria set by the user (numerical data).

Every three months AJPES offers a free overview of the entire Slovenian business register in XML form with a set selection of information for re-use.

Pricing

AJPES charges fees for the re-use of public information from the Slovenian business register, as laid down in the
Link opens in new windowRates of fees for re-use of public information from the Slovenian business register (Tarifa nadomestil za ponovno uporabo informacij javnega značaja Poslovnega registra Slovenije) (link to database of Slovenian legislation).

How reliable are the documents included in the register?

Third parties can cite the information and all types of document mentioned in Article 2 of Directive 2009/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 on coordination of safeguards which, for the protection of the interests of members and third parties, are required by Member States of companies within the meaning of the second paragraph of Article 48 of the Treaty, with a view to making such safeguards equivalent, on the basis of the following laws.

- The Link opens in new windowCompanies Act (Zakon o gospodarskih družbah) (Uradni list RS (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia (UL RS), Nos 65/09 - official consolidated version, 33/11, 91/11, 32/12, 57/12, 44/13 - Const. Court dec. and 82/13; hereinafter: ZGD-1), which is the systemic act regulating the basic rules on the legal status of corporations for the establishment and operation of companies, sole traders, related persons, economic interest groupings and subsidiaries of foreign companies, and any changes to their legal status.

-The Link opens in new windowCourt Register Act (Zakon o sodnem registru) (UL RS, Nos 54/07 - official consolidated version, 65/08, 49/09 and 82/13 - ZGD-1H, hereinafter: ZSReg), which regulates the court register, defines the information entered in the court register, the rules of procedure by which a competent court decides on entries in the court register, and the rules on how AJPES administers the court register. This law also regulates procedures that form part of the Vse na enem mestu (One-Stop Shop) system.

- The Link opens in new windowSlovenian Business Register Act (Zakon o Poslovnem registru Slovenije) (UL RS, Nos 49/06 and 33/07 - ZSReg-B, hereinafter: ZPRS-1), which regulates the keeping and maintenance of the Slovenian Business Register (PRS), defines business register entries, how they are identified and the mandatory use of that ID, the content of the business register and the acquisition of information to keep the register, and defines the procedure for making entries in the business register, the information added or defined by the register's administrator on making an entry, the use of business-register data and the storage of documentation.

Is access to the Slovenian Business Register free of charge?

Yes, access is free of charge. However, users must log in to the portal in order to access it.

Related links

Link opens in new windowposlovni register (Slovenian), Link opens in new windowbusiness register (English)

Last update: 23/03/2018

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Slovakia

This section provides an overview of the Slovak commercial register.

What information does the commercial register hold?

The Link opens in new windowObchodný register [commercial register] is a public list containing statutory data concerning entrepreneurs, companies and other legal entities, where this is required under separate legislation.

The list is administered, from a programming and technical point of view, by the Link opens in new windowMinisterstvo spravodlivosti Slovenskej republiky [Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic].

The commercial register is kept by registrové súdy [registry courts] (the district court at the seat of the regional court).

Is access to the business register free of charge?

The commercial register and document registry are available to everybody. Access to and extracts from the commercial register are subject to payment of a fee.

However, if an applicant applies for an electronic extract from the commercial register or an electronic copy of a deposited document or electronic confirmation that a particular document has not been deposited in the document registry, the registry court issues the relevant documents electronically and free of charge.

It is also possible to apply free of charge for an extract from the commercial register, a copy of a deposited document or confirmation that a particular document has not been deposited in the document registry via the interconnection system for central commercial registers, commercial registers and companies registers (the Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS)).

How to search the commercial register

The search is available in Slovak and English.

The Link opens in new windowobchodný register can be searched according to:

To what extent can the documents in the register be relied upon?

Act No 513/1991 (the Commercial Code), as amended, specifies when data entered in the commercial register – and, where appropriate, the content of documents deposited therein – may be invoked.

The data entered in the commercial register are effective vis-à-vis third parties from their date of publication. The content of documents that must by law be published is effective vis-à-vis third parties from the date of notification in the Commercial Journal that the documents have been deposited in the document registry.

From that moment onwards, third parties may invoke published data or the content of documents. However, this does not apply if a registered person can demonstrate that a third party had prior knowledge of the data or document content.

However, a registered person may not invoke published data or the content of documents vis-à-vis third parties within 15 days of their publication in cases where the third parties can demonstrate that they could not have had prior knowledge of that data or document content.

After that period, the registered data and the content of the documents deposited in the registry of documents may be relied on.

Third parties may always invoke the content of documents or data not yet entered in the commercial register or deposited in the document registry, unless that content or data take binding effect only after their entry in the commercial register.

In the event of a discrepancy between registered data and published data or between the content of documents deposited and that of documents published, a registered person (company) may rely only on the published version vis-à-vis third parties. However, if it demonstrates that a third party had knowledge of the content of the registered data or the content of the document deposited, it may rely on them.

History of the commercial register

The commercial register was established in 1992 following the adoption of Act No 513/1991 (the Commercial Code) and it replaced the previous company register.

The Commercial Code (§ 27 - 34) amended the scope of the commercial register up to 2004.

On 1 February 2004, Special Act No 530/2003 on the commercial register and amending certain other acts entered into effect and introduced new legal requirements applicable to the commercial register. Upon the introduction of the special act, responsibility for the legal aspect of the commercial register was partially removed from the Commercial Code.

At present the commercial register is kept electronically. The registry of documents is kept on paper and electronically. (Since 1 October 2020 the registry of documents has been kept electronically unless otherwise provided for in Act No 530/2003 (the Commercial Register Act)).

Related links

Link opens in new windowCommercial register

Link opens in new windowCommercial register of the Slovak Republic

Last update: 25/04/2022

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - Finland

This section provides you with an overview of Finland’s trade register.

What does the Finnish trade register offer?

Link opens in new windowThe National Board of Patents and Registration (NBPR) owns and maintains the Link opens in new windowtrade register.

Finland's trade register is a public register that contains information on traders (businesses). As a rule, all businesses have to be entered in the register. Businesses also have to notify any changes to their register details. Most businesses must also submit their annual accounts to the register. Each year the following are registered:

  • About 40,000 new businesses
  • About 145,000 changes to registered company details
  • About 230,000 annual accounts.

The trade register shares a joint notification procedure and data service with the Tax Administration. The Link opens in new windowBusiness Information Service (BIS) is a free data service jointly provided by the NBPR and the Tax Administration but maintained by the NBPR. It contains contact and identification information on businesses, for example:

  • Company name of a business, and any parallel or auxiliary company names
  • Business ID, company form and domicile
  • Address and other contact information
  • Principal line of business
  • The registers of the Tax Administration and NBPR in which the business has been entered
  • Information on termination, interruption of trade, bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganisation proceedings.

The Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register Network (EBR) is an information service for member countries of the Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Registry Association (EBRA) providing official reliable register data directly from the national trade register of each country.

The Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS) is a system interconnecting the trade registers of the EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. It can be used to search for data on businesses registered in the national trade registers of those countries.

Is access to the Finnish trade register free of charge?

Basic data is available free of charge, but fees are charged for other data, such as the responsible persons at a business, the line of business entered in the trade register and information on capital.

The following is considered basic data:

  • Company name
  • Business ID No
  • Domicile
  • Company form
  • Language of the business (Finnish or Swedish)
  • Date of registration
  • Most recent date of registration
  • Status of the company
  • Does the company have any business mortgages
  • Contact details

How to search Finland's trade register

The details of traders are entered in the trade register based on notifications and communications received by the trade registration authority. The register contains information submitted both by the traders themselves and by courts of law and other authorities.

Under Section 21a§ of the Trade Register Act (129/1979), the National Board of Patents and Registration (NBPR) can update its records and, by using the Finnish Population Information System, check personal details that clients have provided in notifications and their enclosures.

Under Section 21§ of the Business Prohibition Act, the Legal Register Centre in Finland provides the trade register with details of business prohibitions in force and when they begin and end. These details are then updated in the trade register system.

The contents of the trade register are determined by Finnish law. Finnish legislation governing the trade register, company types and business activities in general define what details are entered for different company types. (see, for example the Link opens in new windowTrade Register ActLink opens in new windowLimited Liability Companies Act, and the Link opens in new windowPartnerships Act).

Normally, at least the following information is registered for each company type:

  • Company name
  • Domicile or municipality from which the company is managed
  • Line of business
  • Who represent(s) the company
  • Company address.

When an entry is made in the trade register, it is simultaneously published through the electronic information service. This is a public, free-of-charge service that contains, besides the published entries, the basic details of businesses. You can use the service to check whether a business has, for example, submitted its new board of directors for registration, or find out what new businesses have been registered in a certain period of time.

Using this service, you can search for information on any company by using its business ID. The ID can be checked in the Business Information System if necessary. A specific date or time interval can also be used as a search term. Alternatively, you can narrow down the search by type of registration, or by municipality or province. The search result contains the basic details of a company, i.e. the company name, business ID and domicile. The published registration contains, for example, the type of registration and the headings of register entries.

Other details are also entered in the register, depending on company type. The register extracts of businesses of the same type may look rather different from one another. Some limited companies, for instance, take broadly advantage of the possibilities offered by the Companies Act; they decide to issue option rights and other special rights or to merge, and then report these details for entry in the register. Other companies, on the other hand, choose to report only the minimum level of detail that must be submitted for entry in the register. The register extracts also reflect amendments to the law. Register entries of, for example, limited companies can be very different, depending on whether the detail to be registered is based on a decision made under the new Limited Liability Companies Act that entered in force on 1st September 2006, or to a decision under an earlier version of the Act.

How reliable are the documents contained in the register?

The Trade Register Act lays down provisions concerning the data to be entered in the register and its publication. The Act entitles everyone to access data, extracts and certificates from the trade register. A third party acting in good faith can rely on the reliability of information recorded in the register.

Under Section 1a§ of the Act, all data recorded in the register is public and everyone is entitled to access data, extracts and certificates entered in the trade register. Data may also be disclosed in electronic form. The only exceptions are the personal ID numbers of natural persons and the home addresses of natural persons living abroad; these are not made public Data on the identifying final numbers of the personal number and the home address of natural persons living abroad are only disclosed if disclosure meets the requirements concerning authority procedures set out in Section 16(3)§ of the Act on the Openness of Government Activities. Otherwise, the country of residence will be disclosed instead of the home address.

Section 26§ of the Trade Register Act provides that a third party acting in good faith can rely on the data entered and published in the register. Data are published electronically directly after entry in the register. Publications can be obtained free of charge from the Trade Register information service.

History of Finland’s trade register

The register includes information dating back to 1896.

Links

Link opens in new windowFinnish Patent and Registration Office

Link opens in new windowFinnish Trade Register

Link opens in new windowThe Business Information System

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Registry Association (EBRA)

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register Network (EBR)

Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS)

Link opens in new windowFinnish Trade Register Act

Link opens in new windowPartnerships Act

Link opens in new windowLimited Liability Companies Act

Last update: 05/11/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Please note that the original language version of this page Swedish has been amended recently. The language version you are now viewing is currently being prepared by our translators.

Business registers in Member States - Sweden

This section provides you with an overview of Sweden's business register.

What does the Swedish business register offer?

The Swedish Companies Registration Office keeps several registers which provide information on businesses (i.e. registered companies). Access to the information in these registers is available via an Link opens in new windowinternet search engine or by contacting Link opens in new windowthe Swedish Companies Registration Office.

These registers are collectively referred to below as the Swedish business register.

The Swedish business register provides information on, for example:

  • company names and addresses
  • registration number
  • company officers (including members of the board)
  • annual accounts
  • articles of association
  • registration certificates
  • bankruptcy.

The register is owned and managed by the Link opens in new windowSwedish Companies Registration Office.

Is access to the Swedish business register free of charge?

Information in the Swedish business register can be accessed free of charge by contacting the Swedish Companies Registration Office by phone. Requests for a written extract from the register are usually subject to a charge.

The internet search engine provides free access to information about a company name, registration number and status. The following additional services are available only to registered and paying users:

  • company officers (including members of the board)
  • annual accounts
  • articles of association
  • registration certificates
  • more detailed information about bankruptcy and liquidation.

How reliable are the documents in the register?

Information about Swedish limited companies is disclosed in accordance with Article 2 of Directive 2009/101/EC.

Newly registered Swedish limited companies, and any changes to them, are registered with the Swedish Companies Registration Office.

Article 2 of Directive 2009/101/EC requires Member States to ensure that companies disclose certain documents and particulars. Article 3a(2) also requires Member States to provide this information for publication on the European e-Justice portal.

In Sweden's case the registered information is published in the Swedish Official Gazette (Post- och Inrikes Tidningar).

Further information about Swedish companies can be found on the Swedish Companies Registration Office's website Link opens in new windowhttp://www.bolagsverket.se/en.

The Swedish Official Gazette can be consulted via the Swedish Companies Registration Office's website Link opens in new windowhttp://www.bolagsverket.se/en.

How to search the Swedish business register

Anyone can obtain information from the register by contacting the Swedish Companies Registration Office by post, e-mail or phone.

Searches can be carried out using the search engine by entering a company name and a registration number. The information listed below is available only to registered and paying users:

  • company officers (including members of the board)
  • annual accounts
  • articles of association
  • registration certificates
  • more detailed information about bankruptcy and liquidation.

History of the Swedish business register

Information has been stored in the register since 1897. Depending on the type of data, the information has been computerised since 1982. Since 2002 all incoming information for the register has been converted into digital format.

Useful links

Link opens in new windowEuropean Business Register (EBR)

Last update: 09/11/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Business registers in Member States - United Kingdom

This section provides you with an overview of the business register of the United Kingdom:

Who keeps the business register in the United Kingdom?

Companies House is the Link opens in new windowbusiness register for the UK including England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.

What information does Companies House hold?

The register provides information filed by companies, limited liability partnerships, limited partnerships, overseas companies, EEIGs (European Economic interest groupings), cross-border mergers and SEs (Societas Europaea, European Company). You can search for more information on filing requirements at Link opens in new windowCompanies House. The register does not hold information on sole traders, general partnerships and business names.

Is access to the business register free of charge?

Yes, access to the register is free of charge, as is the retrieval of basic company information.

How to search the business register in the United Kingdom

Company information on the UK business register can be searched at Link opens in new windowCompanies House, using the ‘WebCHeck’ service.

To which extent can the documents in the register be relied upon?

The registrar of companies

This section describes the position in respect of company information because it represents the majority of the material on the register.

The main legislation governing the operation of the UK register is the Companies Act 2006. Under that Act, information is delivered, for registration, to the registrar of companies (“the Registrar”) by a company, or agents acting on its behalf. Once delivered, the form of the information is checked to ensure it is complete. The Registrar accepts this information in good faith. No validation or verification is made of the accuracy of the information. If acceptable, the information is registered so that a record is maintained and made available for public inspection. Searchers of the register may rely on it, except for a limited class of information, but only to the extent that the information delivered to the Registrar is accurate.

A limited class of information on the register has legal consequences as a result of its registration. This information can be relied upon by searchers as it appears on the register. This class includes,

  • incorporation of a company (section 16 Companies Act 2006)
  • registered office address and its change under section 87
  • company name and its changes under section 81
  • re-registration of a company to alter its status e.g. from a private company to a public company etc. (sections 96, 101,104, 107 and 111)
  • reduction of the capital of a company (sections 651 and 665)

Criminal sanctions can be enforced for serious inaccuracies in the information delivered to the Registrar. Section 1112 Companies Act 2006 makes it a criminal offence to knowingly or recklessly deliver false, misleading or deceptive information to the Registrar.

A company cannot rely against a third party on specific events having taken place unless it has been officially notified, or it can be shown that the third party knew of the event (section 1079 Companies Act 2006).

The specific events are as follows:

  • amendment to the company’s articles
  • change among the company’s directors
  • change in the company’s registered office
  • making of a winding up order in respect of the company
  • appointment of a liquidator in a voluntary winding up of the company

Related Links

Link opens in new windowCompanies House

Last update: 24/07/2017

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.