National justice systems


This section of the Portal provides you with an overview of courts in Romania.

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Organisation of justice - judicial system

The principles, structure and organisation of the Romanian judicial system are laid down in the Romanian Constitution and in Law No 304/2004 on judicial organisation.

The following courts make up the judicial system:

  • the High Court of Cassation and Justice;
  • the courts of appeal;
  • the tribunals;
  • the specialised tribunals;
  • the district courts and
  • the military courts.

Hierarchy of courts

The High Court of Cassation and Justice functions as the Supreme Court in Romania. It ensures that the law is interpreted and applied uniformly by the other courts of law.

  • The 15 courts of appeal have tribunals and specialised tribunals under their jurisdiction.
  • The 42 tribunals are organised at county level and in Bucharest, and are located as a rule in the principal town of each county.
  • The 4 specialised tribunals function as separate courts for cases involving minors and family law (1) and for commercial cases (3).
  • The tribunals have 176 district courts under their jurisdiction.

Types of courts – short description

Several courts carry on their judicial activity under the jurisdiction of each of the 42 tribunals.

All 176 functioning courts are organised at county level and in the districts of Bucharest.

Each court is headed by a president with managerial capacity. The court's specialised sections are led by a section president. In each court, a leading committee decides upon general, court-governance issues.

The military courts are organised in 4 military tribunals, the Territorial Military Tribunal in Bucharest and the Military Court of Appeal in Bucharest. Each of the military tribunals has the status of a military unit.

  • The Superior Council of Magistracy is the body that, under the Constitution, ensures the independence of the judiciary. Furthermore, it ensures observance of the law and of the criteria of competence and professional ethics in the exercise of the professions of judges and prosecutors.
  • The Ministry of Justice contributes to the proper functioning of the judicial system, ensures that justice takes its course under proper conditions as a public service and defends the legal order and citizens' rights and freedoms.

Legal databases

The following legal databases are available online:

Is access to the legal database free of charge?

Yes, access to the legal database is free of charge.

Relevant links

Organisation of justice – Romania

Finding competent courts

Last update: 10/02/2016

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