Organisation of justice – judicial systems
Administration of justice
Justice in Slovakia is administered by the ordinary law courts and the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic.
Judicial power is exercised by independent and impartial courts. At all levels, judicial matters are separated from those of other national authorities.
The President of the court is in charge of the administration of justice.
Administration of the courts
Law courts in Slovakia are administered, as laid down in law, by the Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic and the President of the court, who is also a statutory body of the court. A court is also administered by the administrative director of the court within the scope of the law.
Types of courts – short description
The ordinary court system
- District courts (54)
- Regional courts (8)
- Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic
- Special Criminal Court
Hierarchy of courts
Pursuant to Act No 757/2004 on courts and amending certain other acts:
- District courts act as courts of first instance in civil and criminal cases, unless otherwise stipulated by rules governing court proceedings.
- District courts also hear electoral cases, where stipulated by specific legal provisions.
- Regional courts act as courts of second instance in civil and criminal cases heard in the first instance by district courts.
- 4. The rules governing court proceedings specify the civil and criminal cases in which regional courts act as courts of first instance.
- Regional courts act as courts of first instance in administrative cases, except where otherwise stipulated by law.
- Regional courts also hear other cases, unless otherwise stipulated by specific legal provisions (Act No 166/2003 on the protection of privacy against unauthorised use of information technology and amending certain other acts, and the Act on protection against the interception of communications).
- The Supreme Court acts and decides:
- ordinary appeals against decisions by regional courts and the Special Criminal Court;
- extraordinary appeals against decisions by district courts, regional courts, the Special Criminal Court and the Supreme Court;
- Disputes on subject matter jurisdiction between courts and public authorities
- On the withdrawal and ordering of a case to a court other than the competent court, if the regulation on legal proceedings so stipulates
- In other cases where the Act or an international treaty so stipulates
The Supreme Court conducts a review of courts' decision-making in lawfully closed cases.
The Supreme Court also promotes the uniform interpretation and consistent application of laws and other general legally binding regulations:
- Through its own decision-making
- By adopting opinions aimed at unifying the interpretation of Acts and other general legally binding regulations
- By publishing valid court decisions of primary importance in the ‘collection of opinions’ of the Supreme Court and decisions of the courts of the Slovak Republic.
You can find further information on the website of the Slovak Ministry of Justice.
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