Victims' rights - by country

Italien

Indholdet er leveret af
Italien

You are considered the victim of a crime, ‘offended party’, if it is accepted that you hold a legal right that is protected by the criminal legislation which has been breached by an act that constitutes an offence under national law, i.e. that you have suffered the injury that forms part of the essence of the criminal act.

You suffer injury in civil law as a result of a crime when you suffer damage (material or non-material, but in any case damage that can be valued in financial terms) as a result of the crime. Usually, the offended party in criminal law and the injured party in civil law are the same, except, for example, in murder cases, where the victim is the person killed, while their family members are the injured parties and have the right to go to court and obtain compensation for the damage they have suffered.

The criminal law and the civil law provide a victim with various individual rights before, during and after the proceedings.

In Italy, criminal proceedings begin with preliminary inquiries. The police and the public prosecutor investigate the case. At the end of these inquiries, the public prosecutor may bring charges or ask the Judge in charge of preliminary inquiries to close the case. For some criminal offences proceedings may begin only if you, as the victim, submit a complaint to the police or prosecution service.

During the trial, the court examines the evidence gathered and establishes whether the defendant is guilty. Proceedings end when the defendant is sentenced or acquitted by the court, with the possibility of making an appeal to a higher court.

As the victim, you may play an important role in the criminal proceedings, and consequently there are a number of rights you may exercise. You may participate as a victim (offended party) without a specific legal status, or play a more active role by officially bringing a civil action against the offender.

Click on the links below to find the information that you need

1 - My rights as a victim of crime

2 - Reporting a crime and my rights during the investigation or trial

3 - My rights after trial

4 - Compensation

5 - My rights to support and assistance

Last update: 13/10/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

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1 - My rights as a victim of crime

What information will I get from the authority after the crime occurred (e.g. police, public prosecutor), but before I even report the crime?

The public prosecution service and the criminal investigation department (CID), upon being notified of the crime, must advise you that as the offended party you are entitled to appoint counsel to exercise the rights conferred upon you, and that you are entitled to access legal aid from the Italian State (Article 101 of the Italian Code of Criminal Procedure (Codice di procedura penale or c.p.p.)

Following first contact with the prosecuting authorities, you will be provided, in a language you can understand, with information relating to:

  • the procedures for filing a report or complaint, the role that you will play in the investigation and trial, your right to be made aware of the date and location of the trial, and of the charges, and, if you have joined proceedings as a civil party, your right to receive notification of the judgment, including as a summary
  • your entitlement to legal advice and legal aid, paid for by the Italian State
  • how to exercise your right to interpreting services and to translation of case documents
  • any protection measures that may be available to you
  • your rights recognised by law if you reside in a different EU Member State to the one in which the crime has been committed
  • how any expenses incurred as a result of participation in criminal proceedings will be reimbursed
  • the possibility of seeking compensation for injury or damage suffered as a result of the crime
  • the possibility of settling proceedings by withdrawal of the complaint or through mediation
  • the rights that you will have in proceedings where the defendant requests suspension of the proceedings with probation or in those in which exemption from punishment applies due to the trivial nature of the offence
  • health care facilities in the local area, residential facilities, refuges and shelters

(Article 90‑bis c.p.p.)

I don’t live in the EU country where the crime took place (EU and non-EU citizens). How are my rights protected?

If you do not speak or understand Italian, you have the right to use a language known to you when filing a report or making a complaint with the Public Prosecutor’s office at the district court of first instance (tribunale). In the same way, you have the right, upon request, to have the confirmation of receipt of your report or complaint translated into a language known to you (Article 107‑ter of the Guidelines for Implementation of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Disposizioni di Attuazione del Codice di Procedura Penale or disp.att.)).

If you are resident or domiciled in Italy, the Public Prosecutor will send reports or complaints relating to crimes committed in other Member States of the European Union to the Prosecutor General at the Court of Appeal (Corte di appello), so that he or she can transmit them to the competent judicial authority (Article 108‑ter disp.att.).

Please see also:

If I report a crime, what information will I receive?

Following first contact with the prosecuting authorities, you will be provided, in a language you can understand, with information relating to:

  • your right to receive information relating to the status of proceedings, and of entries in the Official Registry of Reported Offences
  • your right to be informed of a request to close proceedings
  • how to challenge any violations of your rights
  • the authorities from which you can obtain information about your case
  • how any expenses incurred as a result of participation in criminal proceedings will be reimbursed

In proceedings for violent offences against the person, if you so request, you will immediately be informed, through the CID, of preparations for release or for the ending of a detention order, and you will also be informed in a timely manner, in the same way, if the defendant absconds from pre‑trial detention or from prison, and if he or she deliberately fails to comply with a detention order, unless this would place the offender at actual risk (Article 90‑ter c.p.p.).

Am I entitled to free interpreting or translation services (when I contact the police or other authorities, or during the investigation and trial)?

The prosecuting authority will nominate a translator when a document needs to be translated into a foreign language or into a dialect that cannot be easily understood, or an interpreter when you want to or have to make a statement and you do not speak Italian. The statement can also be made in writing and inserted into the report, with the translation provided by a translator.

The authority will nominate an interpreter, of its own motion where appropriate, if you do not speak or understand Italian and your evidence needs to be heard, and in cases where you wish to participate in a hearing and have requested the assistance of an interpreter.

Where possible, the assistance of an interpreter can also be secured using remote communications technology, provided that the interpreter is not required to be physically present to enable you to properly exercise your rights or to fully understand the proceedings.

If you do not speak or understand Italian, you have the right to free translation of documents or parts thereof which contain information relating to the exercise of your rights. Translations may be provided in verbal form or in the form of a summary, if the prosecuting authority does not consider that this will prejudice your rights (Article 143‑bis c.p.p.).

If you do not speak or understand Italian, you have the right to use a language known to you when filing a report or making a complaint with the Public Prosecutor’s office at the district court of first instance. In the same way, you have the right, upon request, to have the confirmation of receipt of your report or complaint translated into a language known to you (Article 107‑ter disp.att).

How does the authority ensure that I understand and that I am understood (if I am a child; if I have a disability)?

The prosecuting authority will nominate a translator when a document needs to be translated into a foreign language or into a dialect that cannot be easily understood, or an interpreter when you want to or have to make a statement and you do not speak Italian. 

If you are a minor, an expert opinion may be ordered by the judge, including of his or her own motion, if there is uncertainty about your age (it being understood that, in case of doubt, you will be presumed to be a minor for the purposes of applying procedural guidelines). The same expert report may also be used to determine if you have any disability.

Article 351(1-ter) c.p.p.

In proceedings for offences falling under Articles 572, 600, 600-bis, 600-ter, 600-quater, 600-quater.1, 600-quinquies, 601, 602, 609-bis, 609-quater, 609-quinquies, 609-octies, 609-undecies and 612-bis of the Italian Criminal Code, if the CID requires summary evidence from minors, it must seek the assistance of a qualified psychologist or child psychiatrist, nominated by the public prosecution service. The same applies where summary evidence is required from adults in a particularly vulnerable state. It is guaranteed in each case that, where summary evidence is required, particularly vulnerable individuals will not have any contact with the person who is under investigation and will not be repeatedly called on to give summary evidence, unless this should prove absolutely necessary to the investigation.

Article 362(1‑bis) c.p.p.

In proceedings for crimes under Article 351(1‑ter), the public prosecution service must seek the assistance of an expert in psychology or child psychiatry when gathering evidence from minors. The same applies where summary evidence is required from adults in a particularly vulnerable state. It is guaranteed in each case that, where summary evidence is required, particularly vulnerable individuals will not have any contact with the person who is under investigation and will not be repeatedly called on to give summary evidence, unless this should prove absolutely necessary to the investigation.

Article 498(4) to (4‑quater) c.p.p.

4. The examination of minors as witnesses, including the questions and objections of the parties, is conducted by the presiding judge. When conducting the examination, the presiding judge may seek the assistance of one of the minor’s relatives or a qualified child psychologist. After hearing the parties, if the presiding judge considers that the minor would not be distressed by direct questioning, he or she will order that the testimony proceed in the way outlined in the preceding sections. The order may be revoked during the course of questioning.

4‑bis If one party so requests, or if the presiding judge considers it necessary, the procedures outlined in Article 398(5-bis) apply.

4-ter In proceedings for offences falling under Articles 572, 600, 600-bis, 600-ter, 600-quater, 600-quinquies, 601, 602, 609-bis, 609-ter, 609-quater, 609-octies and 612-bis of the Italian Criminal Code, victims of the offence(s) who are either minors or adults with a mental illness will be questioned, at their request or at the request of their counsel, using mirror glass and an intercom system.

4‑quater. Without prejudice to the preceding sections, if the offended party is in a particularly vulnerable state and needs to be questioned, the judge, if either the victim or their counsel so requests, will order protective measures to be taken.

Article 398(5‑quater) c.p.p.
Without prejudice to section 5‑ter, if the offended party is in a particular vulnerable state and needs to be questioned, the provisions under Article 498(4-quater) apply.

Victim support services

Who provides victim support?

Support is provided to victims of crime by the health care facilities in the region, by residential facilities, refuges, shelters and other facilities managed by local and regional organisations. Generally speaking, many regions have a network of associations consisting of local organisations, the public prosecutor’s offices, district courts and health services which offer free support to victims of any kind of offence.

Will the police automatically refer me to victim support?

Yes. Particularly if you are a victim of certain kinds of offence (for example, trafficking, family abuse, sexual assault), there are well‑established organisations in contact with law enforcement services which will provide you with information about refuges or residential facilities available to take care of you.

How is my privacy protected?

If you are particularly vulnerable, it is guaranteed in each case that, where summary evidence is required, you will not have any contact with the person who is under investigation and will not be repeatedly called on to give summary evidence, unless this should prove absolutely necessary to the investigation.

In addition, Legislative Decree No 196 of 30 June 2003 (Personal Data Protection Code) contains specific rules for the processing of judicial data, aimed at protecting the confidentiality and security thereof. Aside from this, it is considered that once you, as a victim, assume the status of offended party in criminal proceedings, you will be required to give evidence in court. The code provides rules concerning the ways in which this must take place, which aim to prevent you having to repeat your evidence several times (pre-trial hearing - incidente probatorio) and rules which protect your right as a victim to have no contact with the party under investigation/the accused. If you are a victim under 18, your picture must not appear in newspapers, nor your name. The latter point also applies to victims aged 18 and over. The system aims to prevent the dissemination of your personal data and information that might identify you.

Do I have to report a crime before I can access victim support?

Access to victim support services is not contingent upon having reported the crime.

Personal protection if I’m in danger

What types of protection are available?

Under certain circumstances, provided for by law (Articles 273 and 274 c.p.p.), which may indeed include, inter alia, the dangerous situation in which you as an offended party may find yourself (danger arising in particular from the possibility that the offender will continue to behave in an unlawful manner), the judicial authorities may order that the perpetrator be subject to supervisory measures. For example, he or she may be immediately removed from the family home; he or she may be prohibited from going to places you frequently visit, and he or she may be banned from living in certain places. Otherwise, he or she may be placed under house arrest or in pre‑trial detention.

You have the right to be informed of requests to revoke or replace the supervisory measures imposed on the offender, to submit statements of defence in opposition within two days, or to make your point of view known (Article 299 c.p.p.). You also have the right to be informed of court orders to change, revoke or replace the supervisory measures in place against the suspect.

Especially if you are particularly vulnerable, a minor or a victim of certain crimes, further procedural precautions may also be ordered, in particular:

  • if you are particularly vulnerable, it is guaranteed in each case that, where summary evidence is required, you will not have any contact with the person who is the under investigation and will not be repeatedly called on to give summary evidence, unless this should prove absolutely necessary;
  • if you are a minor and the CID requires summary evidence from you, it must seek the assistance of a qualified psychologist or child psychiatrist, nominated by the public prosecution service (Article 351(1‑ter) c.p.p.);
  • if you are a minor and the public prosecution service requires evidence from you, it must seek the assistance of an qualified psychologist or child psychiatrist. If you are particularly vulnerable, it is guaranteed in each case that, where summary evidence is required, you will not have any contact with the person who is under investigation and will not be repeatedly called on to give summary evidence, unless this should prove absolutely necessary to the investigation (Article 362(1-bis) c.p.p.);
  • The examination of minors as witnesses is conducted by the presiding judge and he or she may seek the assistance of one of the minor’s relatives or a qualified child psychologist. (Article 498 c.p.p.);
  • If one party so requests, or if the presiding judge considers it to be necessary, where one of the parties who is to give evidence is a minor, the court may issue an order establishing the place, time and particular procedures for the pre-trial hearing, where this is necessary and appropriate for the protection of the persons involved. The hearing may take place somewhere other than the court of first instance, and the court may make use of specialised facilities, or, if these are not available, the home of the person giving evidence;
  • witness statements must be recorded in their entirety using phonographic or audiovisual media. If there is no recording equipment or technical staff available, expert reports or technical consultancy shall be provided;
  • in cases relating to violent crimes, victims of the offences who are either minors or adults with a mental illness will be questioned, at their request or at the request of their counsel, using mirror glass and an intercom system.

Who can offer me protection?

(See above)

Will someone assess my case to see if I am at risk of further harm by the offender?

Should special protection requirements arise, the law requires that victims of crime undergo individual assessment to determine if and to what extent they would benefit from special measures over the course of proceedings. Particular care will be taken if you are a minor and/or particularly vulnerable. It will be up to the judge to determine whether you will receive appropriate protection measures over the course of the criminal proceedings. During the investigation, your interviews must take place at suitable locations and be conducted by qualified professionals. If the victims include minors, the juvenile court must be informed in order to assess the situation and the protection measures. To protect you from further crimes, the court of first instance may place restrictions on the offender’s freedom (prison custody, ban on going to places you often visit, removal from the family home). The application of such measures must be communicated to you (Article 282-quater c.p.p.). You may also request that the judge, when ordering that the offender be removed from the family home, or subsequently, also orders the offender to pay a maintenance allowance (Article 282‑bis c.p.p.). The relevant provincial police headquarters (Questura) will have an office exercising similar powers.

Will someone assess my case to see if I am at risk of further harm by the criminal justice system (during investigation and trial)?

Victims of violent crimes, if they are minors or in a particularly vulnerable state, have the right to give evidence with protective measures in place. In particular, arrangements might be made to prevent you from coming into contact with the offender during the investigation or the trial. In addition, if you are particularly vulnerable, it will be possible to use audiovisual recordings of your statements, even where this is not absolutely necessary.

Guidelines for referral 
(Article 413 c.p.p.): Application by the individual under investigation or by the victim of the crime

  1. The individual under investigation or the victim of the crime may apply to the Prosecutor General to issue a referral order under Article 412(1) (if the public prosecution service will not prosecute the case or does not request closure within the deadline provided for by law or as extended by the judge).
  2. If referral is ordered, the Prosecutor General will conduct the necessary preliminary investigations and make any requests within thirty days of submission of the application, as provided for in Article 412(1).

What protection is available for very vulnerable victims?

A state of particular vulnerability in a victim may be inferred, other than from age and any physical infirmity or psychological deficiency, from the type of crime, and the procedures and circumstances of the case in question. In order to assess vulnerability, it will be taken into account whether the case involves a violent offence against the person or a racial hate crime, if it relates to organised crime or terrorism, including on an international level, or human trafficking, if it occurred as a result of discrimination, and if the victim is emotionally, psychologically or economically dependent on the offender (Article 90 quater c.p.p.).

If you are particularly vulnerable, audiovisual recordings of your statements will be permitted in any event, even where this is not absolutely necessary.

EVIDENTIAL REQUIREMENTS IN SPECIFIC CASES ‑ In cases relating to offences of abuse against family members and partners, reducing to or keeping in slavery, child prostitution, child pornography, virtual pornography, tourism initiatives aimed at exploiting child prostitution, human trafficking, purchase and sale of slaves, sexual assault, aggravated offences, sexual acts with a minor, group sexual assault, solicitation of minors and stalking, if you are in a particularly vulnerable state and there is a request for you to give testimony, if you have already made statements during the pre-trial hearing or in a cross-examination hearing with the person against whom these statements are to be used, or if there are written records of your statements, you will be required to give testimony only if it relates to facts and circumstances different to those discussed in your previous statements, or if the judge or one of the parties considers it necessary based on specific requirements.

SUMMARY EVIDENCE - if the CID requires summary evidence from victims in a state of particular vulnerability, even if they are over 18, it must seek the assistance of a qualified psychologist or child psychiatrist, nominated by the public prosecution service. It is guaranteed in each case that, where summary evidence is required, particularly vulnerable individuals will not have any contact with the person being investigated and will not be repeatedly called on to give summary evidence, unless this should prove absolutely necessary to the investigation (Article 351(1-ter)).

GATHERING EVIDENCE - if the public prosecution service requires summary evidence from victims in a state of particular vulnerability, even if they are over 18, it must seek the assistance of a qualified psychologist or child psychiatrist. It is guaranteed in each case that, where summary evidence is required, particularly vulnerable individuals will not have any contact with the person who is under investigation and will not be repeatedly called on to give summary evidence, unless this should prove absolutely necessary to the investigation (Article 362(1-bis)).

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES: Your witness examination, including the questions and counter‑claims of the parties, will be conducted by the presiding judge. When conducting the witness examination, the presiding judge may seek the assistance of one of your relatives or a qualified child psychologist. The presiding judge, after hearing the parties, if he or she considers that you would not be distressed by direct questioning, will order that the testimony proceed in the way outlined in the preceding sections. The order may be revoked during the course of questioning (Article 498 c.p.p.).

If one party so requests, or if the presiding judge considers it necessary, the procedures outlined in Article 398(5-bis) shall apply (pre-trial evidentiary hearing, see below).

PRE-TRIAL EVIDENTIARY HEARING - (Article 398(5-bis)) If one party so requests, or if the presiding judge considers it necessary, the following procedures shall apply: in the case of investigations relating to offences of abuse against family members or partners, reducing to or keeping in slavery, child prostitution, child pornography, virtual pornography, tourism initiatives aimed at exploiting child prostitution, human trafficking, purchase and sale of slaves, sexual assault, aggravated offences, sexual acts with a minor, group sexual assault, solicitation of minors or stalking, if there are adults in a particularly vulnerable state among those giving evidence, the court may issue an order establishing the place, time and particular procedures for the evidentiary hearing, where this is necessary and appropriate for the protection of the persons involved. The hearing may take place somewhere other than the court of first instance, and the court may make use of specialised facilities, or, if these are not available, the home of the person giving evidence. Witness statements must be recorded in their entirety using phonographic or audiovisual media. If there is no recording equipment or technical staff available, expert reports or technical consultancy shall be provided. A written report of the examination, in the form of a summary, will also be prepared. A transcript of the recording will be made available only at the request of the parties.

If you are in a particularly vulnerable state and it is necessary to question you, the judge, if you or your counsel so request, will order protective measures to be taken (Article 498(4-quater) c.p.p.).

In proceedings relating to the aforementioned offences, the public prosecution service, including at your request or at the request of the person under investigation, may ask that you give evidence at the pre-trial hearing, even in cases where this is not indicated as being required. If you are in a particularly vulnerable state, the public prosecution service, including at your request, or at the request of the person under investigation, may ask that you give evidence at the pre-trial hearing (Article 392 c.p.p.).

Gathering of evidence requiring the participation of victims in a particularly vulnerable state may be carried out via the trusted procedure of a pre-trial hearing, an instrument that aims, inter alia, to prevent you suffering further harm (secondary victimisation) due to constantly being involved in the legal process.

LEGAL AID ‑ If you are a victim of offences relating to abuse of family members and partners, female genital mutilation, sexual assault, sexual acts with a minor, group sexual assault and stalking, you will always be entitled to free legal aid, even where your income is higher than the limit fixed by law for being entitled thereto. If you are a minor, the same applies if you are a victim of offences relating to reducing or keeping in servitude or slavery, child prostitution, child pornography, tourism initiatives aimed at exploiting child prostitution, human trafficking, purchase and sale of slaves and corruption of minors.

I am a minor. Do I have special rights?

(See above)

My family member died because of the crime - what are my rights?

If the victim of the crime is deceased, the closest relatives of the victim exercise the rights conferred on him or her by law.

(Article 90(3) c.p.p.).

My family member was a victim of crime - what are my rights?

(See above)

Can I access mediation services? What are the conditions? Will I be safe during mediation?

Criminal Mediation has its basis in Legislative Decree No 274/2000, which allows a victim to bring a direct action against the offender to claim compensation for their interests that have been prejudiced. This power is exercisable only in relation to crimes against which you can bring a complaint (less serious offences).

To initiate and conduct criminal mediation, the consent of the parties is needed in order to reach a satisfactory agreement. Throughout the course of proceedings, the justice of the peace must promote conciliation between the parties as far as it is possible. Crimes under the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace which by their very nature are suitable for mediation include: slander, libel, common assault, battery, minor personal injuries, vandalism.

In addition, the parties to the criminal proceedings or their counsels may apply directly to the Mediation Office in view of the alternative definition of criminal proceedings under the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace as provided for by Article 35 of Legislative Decree No 274/2000, or in view of a ruling that the offence has been extinguished due to compensatory measures taken by the offender.

For crimes in respect of which you may bring a complaint, you are permitted to apply for a summons requiring the individual suspected of committing the crime to appear before a justice of the peace. The application must be signed by you as the offended party, or by your legal representative, and by your counsel. Your signature is attested by your counsel. If you are a minor under the age of 14, mentally ill or incapacitated, the application must be signed by your parent, full guardian, limited guardian or special guardian. The filing of the application has the same effects as bringing a complaint (Article 21).

Filing the application: the application must be sent in advance to the public prosecution service by delivery to its secretariat, and is subsequently filed, by the applicant, with evidence of the aforesaid delivery, with the office of the clerk of the court for the local justice of the peace, within three months of reporting the crime. If you have already brought a complaint in respect of the same incident, you must mention this in the application, attach a copy of the complaint and file another copy with the secretariat of the public prosecution service. In this case, the justice of the peace will order the acquisition of the original complaint (Article 22).

Joining proceedings as a civil party If you wish to join proceedings as a civil party, you must do so, under penalty of forfeiture, when the application is filed. The reasoned request for compensation or damages contained in the application equates essentially to joining proceedings as a civil party (Article 23).

The application will be inadmissible:

  1. if it is submitted out of time;
  2. if it is filed in cases other than those provided for;
  3. if it does not contain the required information or is not signed;
  4. if the description of the incident or the identification of sources of evidence is insufficient;
  5. if there is no evidence that the public prosecution service has been informed.

Requests from the public prosecution service (Article 25): Within ten days of the application being filed, the public prosecution service will submit its requests to the office of the clerk of the court for the justice of the peace. If it deems the application to be inadmissible, or clearly unfounded, or presented before a justice of the peace with no jurisdiction in the region, the public prosecution service will not accept the summons, or else it will state the charge confirming or altering the accusation contained in the appeal.

Once the deadline has passed, the justice of the peace will proceed even if the public prosecution service has not submitted requests. If he or she does not consider the application inadmissible, or clearly unfounded, and within his or her jurisdiction, the justice of the peace will issue a decree summoning the parties to a hearing within 20 days of the application being filed.

An application submitted by one of several offended parties does not prevent the others from participating in the proceedings, with the assistance of counsel and with the same rights as the principal applicant. The offended parties involved may join the civil action prior to the declaration of the opening of the hearing. Should the hearing not be attended by the offended parties on whom the decree was properly served, this is equivalent to renouncing the right to bring a complaint, or to withdrawal of the complaint, if it has already been submitted.

Hearing before the court: At least seven days prior to the date scheduled for the hearing before the court, the public prosecution service or you as the offended party will file the writ of summons with the office of the clerk of the court for the justice of the peace with the relevant notifications.

The judge, when the crime is one against which a complaint may be brought, will promote conciliation between the parties. In this case, where it would be beneficial for the purposes of conciliation, the judge may defer the hearing for a period no longer than two months and, where necessary, may also use mediation measures provided by public or private centres and facilities in the region. In any case, statements made by the parties in the course of conciliation cannot be used in any way at all for the purposes of deliberation (Article 29).

Should a settlement be reached, a report shall be drawn up confirming the withdrawal of the complaint or the waiving of the application and the related acceptance. The waiving of the application has the same effects as withdrawing the complaint.

Mediation may lead to you withdrawing the complaint, which will result in a declaration that the case has been dropped due to a lack of a cause of action. Furthermore, a positive outcome of mediation, as it may lead to compensation for the damage caused by the crime, may result in a ruling that the offence has been extinguished as a consequence of the compensation provided by the offender prior to the hearing before the court or due to the minor nature of the offence.

Where can I find the law stating my rights?

Rules for protection of victims can be found in the Code of Criminal Procedure, in Link opens in new windowLegislative Decree No 212 of 15 December 2015, implementing Directive 2012/29/EU on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime, in Link opens in new windowLegislative Decree No 204 of 9 November 2007, in Link opens in new windowDecree No 222 of 23 December 2008 (implementing Legislative Decree No 204/2007), in Article 11 of Link opens in new windowLaw No 122 of 7 July 2016 ‑ European law 2015-2016 (compensation for victims of violent crime) and in a series of other regulatory measures relating to victims of particular kinds of crime.

Last update: 13/10/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

Den sprogudgave, du kigger på nu, er i øjeblikket ved at blive oversat af vores oversættere.
Følgende sprog er allerede oversat.

2 - Reporting a crime and my rights during the investigation or trial

How do I report a crime?

  • A report is filed when an individual who has knowledge of a publicly actionable offence informs the public prosecution service or a CID officer about it. Reporting a crime is optional, but it becomes mandatory in several cases expressly provided for by law. The report contains the essential details of the incident, and indicates the day upon which you became aware of the offence and the sources of evidence already noted. In addition, it contains, where possible, the personal details, residence and anything else that may help to identify the person suspected of committing the crime, as well as your personal details as the offended party and the details of anyone else who may be able to provide relevant information to help establish what happened. If no useful details are given which might help to identify the person suspected of the crime, this does not prevent criminal proceedings from being launched, as you can file a report against persons unknown, which must be submitted to the relevant prosecutor’s office by the police authorities, along with details of any investigative measures carried out in order to identify the perpetrators of the crime.
  • A complaint is a statement by means of which an individual who has been a victim of crime (or their legal representative) expresses a wish that the offender be prosecuted. It relates to non‑publicly actionable offences. The statement must describe the offence committed and must express the clear wish of the complainant to proceed with the allegation and punish the guilty party. You may withdraw a previously filed complaint, except in cases of sexual assault or sexual acts with a minor. In order for the complaint to be dropped, the withdrawal must be accepted by the subject of the complaint who, if innocent, may instead wish to demonstrate by means of a trial that they had nothing to do with the crime.
  • A petition is filed to request the intervention of law enforcement authorities in disagreements between private individuals, and is submitted by one or both of the parties involved. Following a request for official intervention, the law enforcement officer invites the parties to a meeting in order to attempt conciliation and draw up a report. If it is established that a crime has been committed, the law enforcement officer must inform the judicial authorities, if it is a publicly actionable offence; if it is a crime actionable by means of a complaint, he or she may, upon request, undertake a preliminary settlement of the dispute, which does not prejudice your subsequent right to bring a complaint.

Reports, complaints and petitions must be filed at the offices of a branch of the law enforcement authorities (provincial police headquarters, local police stations and offices of the military police (Carabinieri)). A report or a petition may also be filed with the public prosecutor.

How do I find out what’s happening with the case?

After you have filed a report, you will be provided with information relating to: the authorities you can contact if you wish to obtain information about the case, the role that you will play in the investigation and trial, your right to be made aware of the date and location of the trial and of the charge, and, if you join proceedings as a civil party, your right to receive notification of the judgment, including as a summary. In addition, you may receive updates about the status of proceedings and of entries in the Official Registry of Reported Offences; you will be advised of any request to close the case, how to challenge any violation of your rights; and you can settle the case by withdrawing the complaint, where possible, or through mediation (Article 90‑bis of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Codice di procedura penale or c.p.p.)).

Am I entitled to legal aid (during the investigation or trial)? Under what conditions?

Following first contact with the prosecuting authorities, you will be provided, in a language you can understand, with information relating to your entitlement to legal advice and legal aid, paid for by the Italian State (Article 90-bis). You may submit an application for State-funded legal aid pursuant to the regulations provided in the law on aid for the underprivileged (Article 98 c.p.p.). You may also have access to State-funded legal aid if your income does not exceed the limit provided for by law. In order to be eligible for State-funded legal aid, you will need to submit the relevant application to the court of first instance, in the period immediately following the filing of the report. Upon completion of the first stage of proceedings which the defence counsel has the right to attend, and, in any case, before the invitation to come in for questioning, or, at the latest, at the same time as notification that preliminary investigations have been concluded, the public prosecution service must notify the individual under investigation in writing that he or she has been appointed a defence counsel by the court, or any subsequent acts will be null and void (Article 369‑bis c.p.p.).

This notification must contain:

a) the information that it is obligatory to have professional counsel for the defence in criminal proceedings, with information about the rights conferred by law upon an individual under investigation;

b) the name of the court-appointed defence counsel, his or her address and telephone number;

c) information about the accused’s right to nominate his or her own defence lawyer, with the advice that, if he or she does not do so, he or she will be represented during the investigation by the court-appointed counsel;

d) the indication that he or she will have to pay their court-appointed defence counsel, if he or she does not meet the requirements to obtain State-funded legal aid, and the warning that should he or she be declared insolvent, enforcement proceedings will be commenced;

d-bis) information relating to the right to an interpreter and to translation of important documents;

e) information relating to requirements to be eligible for State-funded legal aid.

Free legal aid is an institution based on the right to defence enshrined in Article 24 of the Italian Constitution, on the basis of which anyone has the right to assistance at any stage and at any level of the justice system, and allows persons in financial difficulties not only to obtain, at the expense of the State, the assistance of a lawyer and of specialists, including technical consultants, but also not to have to pay court costs. Free legal aid is available for criminal cases and civil cases connected to criminal cases, for supplementary actions like criminal enforcement, security, prevention and surveillance proceedings, and lastly for civil cases originating from criminal proceedings.

Eligibility to access free legal aid is not available to Italian citizens alone, but also to foreign nationals, even if when they are subject to administrative expulsion proceedings, are not resident in Italy or are stateless persons living in Italy.

All parties to the proceedings may apply for free legal aid, but if you are a victim of certain sexual offences the income limits stipulated by law will not apply.

The State also protects minors, who can obtain free legal aid, as can persons who are the subject of preliminary investigations if they are arrested, detained or subject to pre-trial detention measures.

In order to be eligible for free legal aid, your income must not be greater than the maximum fixed in law, equivalent to EUR 11 369.24, taking account of an increase for every other person living with you of EUR 1 032.90.

Can I claim expenses (for taking part in the investigation/trial)? Under what conditions?

Free legal aid, an institution based on the right to defence enshrined in Article 24 of the Italian Constitution, allows anyone who meets the requirements (relating to circumstances of financial hardship) to assistance at any stage and at any level of the justice system,, from a lawyer and from specialists, including technical consultants, at the expense of the State; it also allows for exemption from paying court costs.

Can I appeal if my case is closed before going to court?

If you file opposition to a request to close the case, you are asking for preliminary investigations to continue. You must indicate the subject of the further investigation and corresponding items of evidence, or the opposition will be declared inadmissible. If your opposition is inadmissible and the notice of the offence is unfounded, the judge will order by reasoned decree that the case be closed, and return the documents to the public prosecution service. If the request is not accepted, the judge will fix a date for a hearing in chambers, informing the public prosecution service thereof, for you and for the person under investigation. The judge will also inform the Prosecutor General at the Court of Appeal (Corte di Appello) that the hearing has been scheduled. Following the hearing, the judge, if he or she considers further investigations to be necessary, will indicate this by means of an order to the public prosecution service, setting a non-negotiable deadline for these investigations to be completed. If the judge does not accept the request for the case to be closed, he or she will order the public prosecution service to formulate a charge within ten days. Within two days of the charge being issued, the judge will issue a decree to schedule the preliminary hearing.

If you are a victim of a violent crime against the person, in addition, you will always have the right to be informed if there is a request for the case to be closed, even if you do not explicitly request to be told, and you will have 20 days from receiving this notification to view the documents and to present a reasoned application for preliminary investigations to be continued (Article 408(3-bis) c.p.p.).

Can I be involved in the trial?

As the victim of the crime, you may nominate a counsel to exercise the rights conferred upon you. To make sure that you receive the communications to which you are entitled by law, and to exercise specific rights, you must declare and indicate an address for service. You must also communicate any change in this address during the course of the criminal proceedings. If you have nominated counsel, you will not need to provide this information, as all notifications will be sent to him or her.

You have the right to file pleadings and to indicate items of evidence, both during the investigation stage and during the trial (Article 90‑bis c.p.p.). You can also check the entries in the Official Registry of Reported Offences (Article 335 c.p.p.). You must be informed when expert assessments, which cannot be repeated, are complete (Article 360 c.p.p.). You also may make a request to the public prosecution service for collection of evidence in the pre-trial hearing. You may ask to be notified of any request to defer the investigations or to close the case, both immediately when making the report or subsequently. You must specifically ask to be informed of a request to defer the investigations (Article 406 c.p.p.) and of a request to close the case (Article 408 c.p.p.). When a trial is held, you have the right to be informed of the place, date and time of the first hearing; for subsequent hearings, you will not be notified and you must obtain the adjournment dates yourself from the court of first instance. You are not obliged to attend the hearings, other than when you give your evidence. Once the investigations have been concluded, you have the right to see all the documents relating to the case and to make copies thereof. However, while investigations are still ongoing you may not do this, as a rule, although the public prosecution service can authorise it if there are specific reasons for interest.

When a criminal trial is held and you have been affected by the crime committed, you can ask for compensation and to participate in the trial, by joining proceedings as a civil party.

What is my official role in the justice system? For example, am I or can I choose to be a: victim, witness, civil party or private prosecutor?

The victim, as the person affected by the crime, has all of the rights indicated above. In addition, you may be heard as a witness in the trial and, if you have the right to compensation for damage caused by the crime, you may bring a civil action in the criminal trial by joining the proceedings as a civil party.

What are my rights and obligations in this role?

Without prejudice to what is set out above in relation to your rights and interests as the offended party, if you also act as a witness, the following rules apply:

As a witness, you must appear before the judge and follow the instructions given to you by him or her regarding procedural requirements, and respond to questions addressed to you truthfully. You are not obliged to reveal anything that may lead to a criminal prosecution against you. Should it happen that on the day of the hearing, a problem arises which makes it impossible for you to attend, you must make this known in good time, indicating the reason for your absence. In this case, if the judge deems your absence to be justified, he or she will issue a further summons for a subsequent hearing. If you are summonsed several times and do not appear, without giving a legitimate reason, you may be given a compulsory escort and you might also be obliged to pay a fine to the Fines Office (cassa delle ammende) and the costs incurred by your failing to appear, within the meaning of Article 133 c.p.p. You are obliged to respond to questions addressed to you truthfully. Article 372 c.p.p. makes provisions to punish witnesses who refuse to respond, make false statements or do not state what they know. If you are unwilling or uncooperative as a witness, you may be punished by a prison sentence. A witness cannot be detained during a hearing. If you withdraw a false statement, or confirm the truth, before the judgment is pronounced, you cannot be charged with a crime. No punishment will be incurred if you give false testimony in order to save yourself or a close relative from a criminal conviction (Article 384 c.p.p.).

Can I make a statement during the trial or give evidence? Under what conditions?

You, as the victim of the crime, may also appear as a witness. Your statements may be used as evidence to convict the accused, if when subject to scrutiny they have both objective and subjective credibility. The judge may freely evaluate your testimony and it may even be your evidence alone which forms the basis for the conviction of the accused. You must tell the truth, although you are not obliged to incriminate yourself (the right to silence). Close relatives of the accused are not obliged to appear as witnesses, unless they themselves file the report or complaint, or in cases where they or a close relative are the victim of the crime that is the subject of proceedings. You can also refuse to answer questions that may reveal a professional secret. If you make statements during the preliminary investigations, you may be entitled to various protective measures.

What information will I receive during the trial?

(See above)

Will I be able to access court files?

The public prosecution service will immediately enter, in the appropriate register held by its office, notice of any crime of which it has been made aware, or which it has discovered of its own initiative, and at the same time, or as soon as it is available, the name of the person who is suspected of committing the crime. If, in the course of the preliminary investigations, the legal characterisation of the incident changes, or details prove to be different, the public prosecution service will update the entries. The entries will be communicated to the person accused of the crime, to you as the victim and to the respective counsels, if so requested. When a request is made for information regarding entries in the Official Registry of Reported Offences, the secretariat of the Public Prosecutor will provide the information requested, if such entries have been made and there is nothing to prevent a response. Otherwise, it will declare that there are no entries about which information may be provided. If there are specific requirements relevant to the investigations, the public prosecution service, upon deciding whether to grant the request, may order, by virtue of a reasoned decree, that the entries remain secret for a period of no longer than three months, and which cannot be extended (Article 335 c.p.p.).

The public prosecution service, if it is not going to request that proceedings be closed, when the case concerns abuse of family members and partners or stalking, will also notify your legal representative, or, if you do not have one, you yourself, that the preliminary investigations have been concluded (Article 415-bis c.p.p.).

Last update: 13/10/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

3 - My rights after trial

Can I appeal against the ruling?

Only a victim who has joined proceedings as a civil party has an autonomous right to appeal, and this is in any case limited to the protection of your own civil interests.

Pursuant to Italian Law No 46/2006, a civil party no longer has a general right to appeal; you may only appeal to the Court of Cassation (Corte di Cassazione).

You may file an appeal in the following cases:

  • against aspects of the conviction which relate to the civil action;
  • against an acquittal ruling regarding civil aspects of the case only;
  • against aspects of the ruling concerning your own right to damages and costs.

What are my rights after sentencing?

In terms of review, if you, as a victim, joined as a civil party the trial that has concluded in the judgment of which you wish to request a review, you are entitled, once the hearing stage has begun, to intervene regarding the admissibility of the request itself. This applies even in cases where you have brought an extraordinary appeal against a plea‑bargained sentence, it being acknowledged in a special judgment that it is possible to request and obtain a ruling that the offender refund legal fees.

Am I entitled to support or protection after the trial? For how long?

Legislative Decree No 9 of 11 February 2015 lays down rules for implementing Directive No 2011/99/EU, which is based on the principle of mutual recognition and regulates the European protection order to guarantee that measures adopted to protect a person against a criminal act, which might harm that person or endanger their life, their physical or mental health, their dignity, their personal freedom or sexual integrity, are maintained even in the event of that person moving to another Member State. The Directive specifies that a European protection order may only be issued when a protection measure has been previously adopted in the issuing State, imposing on the person causing danger one or more of the following prohibitions or restrictions: a prohibition from entering certain localities, places or defined areas where the protected person resides or visits; a prohibition or regulation of contact with the protected person; a prohibition or regulation on approaching the protected person closer than a prescribed distance. Upon receipt of a European protection order, the competent authority of the executing Member State must, without undue delay, recognise that order and adopt any measure that would be available under its national law in a similar case in order to ensure the protection of the protected person.

What information will I be given if the offender is sentenced?

Once deliberations have been concluded, the presiding judge will draft and sign the operative part of the judgment and a concise summary will be drawn up of the reasons in fact and law upon which the judgment is based. The judgment will be made public at the hearing with a reading of its operative part. Reading of the statement of grounds and of the operative part of the judgment is equivalent to notification of the judgment for the parties present at the hearing or that should be there. The judge will hand down a conviction if the accused is guilty of the crime beyond any reasonable doubt. With the judgment, the judge will detail the sentence imposed and any measures of prevention (misure di sicurezza). If the convicted offender is insolvent, the judge will order his or her civil representative to pay the financial penalty. In addition, the judgment will order the convicted offender to pay the trial costs. The publication of the conviction in newspapers will be ordered by the judge upon request of the civil party and will take place at the expense of the convicted offender, and if necessary also of his or her civil representative.

The judgment will contain:

  1. the heading ‘in nome del popolo italiano’ [‘in the name of the Italian people’] and an indication of the authority that issued it;
  2. the personal details of the offender and other personal information which serve to identify him/her and general details of other private parties to the case;
  3. the charge;
  4. an indication of the submissions of the parties;
  5. a concise explanation of the reasons in fact and law on which the decision is based, with an indication of the evidence forming the basis of the decision and an explanation of the reasons why the judge considers the contrasting evidence to be unreliable;
  6. the operative part, with an indication of the articles of statutes applied;
  7. the date and the signature of the judge.

The judgment will be filed at the office of the clerk of the court after publication. If it is not published within thirty days, or, subject to another deadline, not exceeding 90 days of it being issued, notification that the judgment has been handed down is communicated to the public prosecution service and to the private parties that have a right to appeal, as well as to the offender’s defence counsel when the judgment is handed down.

Will I be told if the offender is released (including early or conditional release) or escapes from prison?

Article 90-ter of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Codice di procedura penale) establishes that, for violent crimes against the person, you must be immediately informed, if you have so requested, of preparations for release or for the ending of a detention order, and if the defendant absconds from pre-trial detention or from prison, and if the sentenced offender deliberately fails to comply.

Will I be involved in release or parole decisions? For example, can I make a statement or lodge an appeal?

It is not general practice to consult the victim before making these decisions.

Last update: 13/10/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

4 - Compensation

What is the process for claiming damages from the offender? (e.g. court case, civil claim, adhesion procedure)

The commission of a crime and a subsequent conviction means that the offended party can claim damages. Italian law provides two ways for you to obtain compensation for the damage you have suffered:

  • You can join the criminal proceedings against the offender as a civil party.
  • You can bring an independent civil action.

This is your choice, as the legislation leaves the two proceedings separate: the criminal proceedings and the civil proceedings.

Only after a request that the case be committed for trial, or committal for trial (at a hearing), may you, assisted by your counsel, join a civil action and thus become an effective party to the proceedings, with full rights of representation. When sentencing, the criminal court will award you a sum, the so-called interim award, which is immediately enforceable, referring the decision about the total and final amount of compensation to a civil court, to be fixed only after the criminal judgment has become res judicata.

As an alternative to joining proceedings as a civil party, you can bring an independent civil action to request compensation for damage suffered as a result of the offender’s behaviour.

The court ordered the offender to pay me damages/compensation. How do I make sure the offender pays?

When the court orders the offender to pay compensation for injuries or damages caused to a victim who has joined proceedings as a civil party, it can do one of three things: settle the damages, make a general order for compensation or order payment of an interim sum. 
The best thing for the victim is if the judgment orders final settlement of the damages: in that case, in fact, it is possible to inform the offender of the judgment and the order for payment (atto di precetto - a payment notice which must be issued prior to starting enforcement proceedings), thus ordering the payment of the amount owed, and taking the first step necessary for issuing enforcement measures in the event of persistent failure of the offender to pay (in which case it is always advisable to conduct preliminary inquiries about the assets that might be claimed).

Unless the award of compensation was stated to be expressly provisionally enforceable, enforcement is conditional upon the judgment not being overturned, that is to say upon no appeal being filed within the deadline.

The order for payment, therefore, can be communicated along with the judgment, including in cases where the latter orders the payment of an interim award, which, moreover, is always declared to be immediately enforceable. However, this will not always be satisfactory in the eyes of the victim. Therefore, if you consider it insufficient, you must bring an independent civil action, by means of which any residual damage can be ascertained and a new, different penalty imposed upon the offender.

Civil proceedings are always necessary in the third possible scenario, where the criminal court merely issues a general order for the offender to pay compensation, without fixing an amount, due to there being a lack of sufficient evidence in this regard.

If the offender does not pay, can the state pay me an advance? Under what conditions?

The State, on the basis of Directive 2004/80/EC, implemented in Italy by means of the provisions stated above, must guarantee to citizens and non-nationals who are victims of violent intentional crime (murder, GBH with intent, sexual assault), committed on Italian territory, fair and appropriate compensation, every time that the offender is not identified, or is not brought to justice, or, in any case, does not have the financial resources to compensate victims for the damage he or she has caused them, or, if the victim has died, to their families.

Am I entitled to compensation from the State?

(See above)

Am I entitled to compensation if the offender is not convicted?

If the defendant is found to be innocent in criminal proceedings, this does not prevent you from bringing an action for compensation in the civil courts, unless you renounced this right by joining the criminal proceedings as a civil party.

Am I entitled to an emergency payment while I wait for the decision on my compensation claim?

If you join the criminal proceedings as a civil party to request repayment and compensation for damage, upon issuing the judgment the court will also rule on the civil aspects of the case, pursuant to Article 533 c.p.p. In cases in which there is evidence that damage was suffered as a result of the crime (an debeatur) but not how much (quantum debeatur), the court will issue a generic ruling in relation to civil responsibility and remit the parties to a civil court for the amount to be settled (Article 539 c.p.p.). A civil party, however, can ask the criminal court for an interim award, within the limits of the damage already substantiated by evidence. The provisional ruling, more precisely, will order the offender and his or her civil representative to pay a sum by way of compensation for damages in advance of the definitive calculation thereof, and this is immediately enforceable. It is an instrument which, at your specific request, provides justification for ordering the offender to pay an interim sum, when the court considers that there is already concrete evidence of liability, limited to the amount in respect of which the interim sum is awarded; in fact, even in criminal proceedings, ‘it is not necessary, for the purposes of calculating the interim sum, to provide evidence of the amount of damage itself, but it is sufficient that it is certain that such damage occurred, up to the sum awarded (Court of Cassation criminal division, No 12634/2001).

Last update: 13/10/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.

5 - My rights to support and assistance

I am a victim of crime, who do I contact for support and assistance?

Following first contact with the prosecuting authorities, as the offended party you will be provided, in a language you can understand, with information relating to: the health care facilities in the local area, residential facilities, refuges and shelters. If the victims include minors, the juvenile court must be informed, in order to assess the situation and the protection measures. If you so request, the law enforcement authorities have the duty to put you in contact, at any time, with the following organisations:

  • victim support services
  • specialised legal support authorities
  • Bar councils (Consigli dell’Ordine)
  • non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
  • legal clinics ‑ forensic medicine departments
  • state authorities involved in legal support (Ministry of Justice, Interior Ministry)

Victim support organisations

non-governmental organisations ‑ Associations involved in providing legal support to victims of crime

  1. trade unions: Italian General Confederation of Labour (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro; CGIL) - Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori; CISL) ‑ Italian Labour Union (Unione Italiana del Lavoro; UIL)
  2. Libera association [anti-mafia organisation] - 0832 683429‑683430
  3. Women's refuge Rome - 06 6840 172006
  4. consumer associations
  5. National network of associations for the rights of elderly people (Associazioni per i Diritti degli Anziani; ADA) - 06 48907327
  6. Dafne network (support for victims of violence) - 011 5683686

Anti-trafficking Helpline - 800 290 290

Anti-violence Helpline - 1522

Anti-discrimination Helpline - 800 90 10 10

Helpline for victims of genital mutilation - 800 300 558

Helpline for victims of terrorism and organised crime - 06.46548373 - 06.46548374 - 06.46548375

Helpline for victims of crimes related to the mafia - 800 191 000

Helpline for victims of extortion and usury - 800-999-000

Helpline in all languages to report incidents of discrimination and racism - 800 90 10 10

Emergency Helpline for minors - 114

Is victim support free?

Victim support is free.

What types of support can I receive from state services or authorities?

Crimes committed with violence can have traumatic effects on the victim, and as such you may seek assistance from the appropriate public services provided by the local health authority (Azienda Sanitaria Locale; ASL), such as family advice centres (consultorio familiare), and by the local municipality (social services). If the victims include minors, the juvenile court must be informed, in order to assess the situation and the protection measures. If you so request, the police authorities (military police (Carabinieri), state police, municipal police, etc.) have the duty to put you in contact, at any time, with the following organisations: Some refuges have safe houses in which, in more serious cases, you may be housed to escape further violence. In order to obtain information and/or get in contact with refuges in your area, you may also call the freephone number 1522, run by the Italian Prime Minister’s Office. If you are in personal difficulties, you can also request assistance from a support administrator (Amministratore di Sostegno), an individual who works under the direction of the Guardianship Section of the Civil Court and has the responsibility of assisting individuals, free of charge, who find themselves in difficulties, including temporary difficulties, to provide for their needs. You can submit a request directly to the Civil Court or explain your difficulties to the social services of the local municipality, so that they can inform the public prosecution service’s civil affairs office, which may order action on your behalf.

What types of support can I receive from non-governmental organisations?

Non‑governmental organisations provide different kinds of support, including psychological support, temporary accommodation in facilities such as refuges, legal support and advice, material support, providing necessities, etc.

Last update: 13/10/2020

The national language version of this page is maintained by the respective Member State. The translations have been done by the European Commission service. Possible changes introduced in the original by the competent national authority may not be yet reflected in the translations. The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice to see copyright rules for the Member State responsible for this page.