National ordinary courts

Polen

This section provides you with information on the organisation of ordinary courts in Poland.

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Polen

Ordinary courts

The system of ordinary courts in Poland includes the district courts, regional courts and appeal courts. The ordinary courts exercise the administration of justice in all matters, except for those reserved by law for other courts, i.e. administrative courts, military courts and the Supreme Court, as well as (in wartime) extraordinary courts. Proceedings before ordinary courts have a two-tier structure.

Matters within the competence of the ordinary courts include cases concerning criminal, civil, family and guardianship law, commercial law, and labour and social security law, unless it is apparent from the nature of the case that it falls within the competence of other courts (for example, the administration of justice in criminal cases in respect of persons serving in the Polish Armed forces is exercised by military courts to the extent provided for by law).

The ordinary courts also perform other tasks relating to legal protection assigned to them by statute, by international law binding on the Republic of Poland or by law established by an international organisation, if the founding treaty binding on the Republic of Poland provides for that law to have direct effect. Among other things, district courts maintain the National Court Register, the pledge register and the land and mortgage register.

The following divisions may exist within district courts: civil, criminal, family and minors, labour and social security, commercial, land and mortgage register and enforcement.

The following divisions may be established at regional courts: civil, criminal, labour and social insurance, commercial, control of telecommunications, postal, and internet data.

The courts of appeal are divided into the following divisions: civil, criminal, labour and social security.

Adjudicatory activity of ordinary courts is supervised by the Supreme Court.

Ordinary courts also maintain land and mortgage registers, as well as the pledge register, the National Court Register and the National Criminal Register.

Jurisdiction in civil matters

There is a civil unit in each appeal court, regional court and district court.

Jurisdiction in criminal matters

There is a criminal unit in each appeal court, regional court and district court.

Legal databases

The Online Database of Polish Legislation [Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych - ISAP] is a legal information system maintained by a team of specialists at the IT Centre of the Chancellery of the Sejm; it contains bibliographical descriptions and the texts of legislation published officially in the Journal of Laws and the Polish Monitor and issued by the Prime Minister.

The Database contains legislation published in the Journal of Laws since 1918 and in the Polish Monitor since 1930 (available at https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/)

Access to the database is free of charge.

Last update: 30/01/2024

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