Judges are the main guarantors of the proper application of EU law at national level. They apply EU law ex officio, put into practice the principles of primacy and direct effect, and refer preliminary questions to the CJEU.
The initial training, training for future or newly appointed judges, should provide:
- grounding in the EU legal system and legal culture, helping build a practical understanding of the role of EU law in national legal systems
- the rule of law acquis
- information on their role as European justice practitioners.
This page is maintained by the European Commission. The information on this page does not necessarily reflect the official position of the European Commission. The Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice with regard to copyright rules for European pages.