Initial training of lawyers in the European Union

Sweden

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Sweden

General description

Is initial training offered, if yes is it compulsory?

After having completed the legal studies a candidate must professionally assist the general public in legal matters for three years by working in a law firm under supervision of an advocate (Sw; “Advokat” – member of the Swedish Bar Association) or by offering legal services through his/her own firm.

Besides professionally assisting the general public in legal matters for three years a candidate has to attain a pass grade in the examination following the special training courses arranged by the Bar Association (the Swedish Bar Examination).

Does initial training differentiate between categories of trainees, e.g. for in-house lawyers and advocates?

The initial training is the same for all candidates who applies for SBA membership.

Which entities are responsible for organising initial training?

The Swedish Bar Association is organizing the Bar Examination.

What is the statutory basis for initial training?

The Charter of the Swedish Bar Association, section 3.

The Code of Judicial procedure, chapter 8, section 2.

Access to the initial training

Are there conditions for accessing the training?

Candidates who are professionally assisting the general public in legal matters by working in a law firm under supervision of an advocate (“Advokat”) or by offering legal services through his/her own firm may register for the special training courses and the exam.

What is the main recruitment procedure? If it is competitive - who runs it?

The law firms independently decide who they hire as an associate lawyer.

Are there alternative access routes to the training?

N/A.

Format and content of the initial training

What is the duration and time frames of the training?

The Swedish Bar Examination comprises three courses, one written exam and an oral final exam. The courses (two to three days each) are spread over three semesters in general. The third course includes a written exam. After completing the three courses one has to pass an oral exam (the Swedish Bar Examination).

How is the training organised?

The Swedish Bar Association is organizing the Bar Examination.

Who are the trainers?

The trainers are full-time professionals (advocates).

What is the content and objectives of the initial training?

The main purpose of the Swedish Bar Examination is for the candidates to comprehend the Code of Professional Conduct for Members of the Swedish Bar Association. Other elements included in the Swedish Bar Examination are e.g. negotiation techniques, how to run a law firm and media training.

Who designs the initial training programmes?

The Swedish Bar Association.

What methodology is used for the training?

Primarily lectures.

What practical elements of the training are applicable to the trainees?

N/A.

How are trainees evaluated/assessed? How often and by whom?

The Swedish Bar Examination comprises one written exam and one oral exam. The oral exam is the final bar exam.

Are there any training activities carried out in conjunction with other legal professionals? If yes: How does it work?

No.

What are the specificities regarding EU law training, linguistic training and European components of initial training, for example participation in CCBE or ELF activities?

The written exam covers constitutional law, including ECHR and EU law.

How many trainees are accepted for training? Are the numbers of trainees adjusted annually and by who?

There is no fixed number. The Bar Association tries to adjust the number of courses/exams to the current number of candidates.

Termination of the initial training and qualification process

Does the initial training conclude with a final exam? How is it organised? Who is responsible for the exam?

The Bar Examination comprises one written exam and one oral exam. The oral exam is the final exam.

The oral exam focuses on the Code of Conduct of the Swedish Bar Association.

Is there a further recruitment procedure to become a lawyer upon completion of the initial training?

To be admitted as a member of the Bar Association an applicant must also be known for his/her integrity and otherwise be considered suitable to carry on the profession of Advokat (references from professional contacts, i.e. counsels for opposite parties and other advocates and lawyers).

See also answer 1.1.

Last update: 03/02/2022

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