Initial training of lawyers in the European Union


Sisu koostaja:

General description

Is initial training offered, if yes is it compulsory?

Yes, it is mandatory.

Does initial training differentiate between categories of trainees, e.g. for in-house lawyers and advocates?

There is a difference between trainee at the Bar and trainees in house.

In house lawyers training are organised by the employers.

Which entities are responsible for organising initial training?

The Hungarian Bar is responsible for organising training. During the induction period The Bar may outsource training to other training providers. The content of training is regulated by the competent Bars at regional level.

What is the statutory basis for initial training?

Act on lawyers 2017. évi LXXVIII. törvény

Access to the initial training

Are there conditions for accessing the training?

The access is free.

What is the main recruitment procedure? If it is competitive - who runs it?

There is no recruitment procedure.

Are there alternative access routes to the training?


Format and content of the initial training

What is the duration and time frames of the training?

Three years, it is a fixed period of learning after getting a university diploma.

How is the training organised?

The training is decentralised and run by local Bars and universities all over the country.

Who are the trainers?

For both categories, the trainers could be lawyers, judges, University professors or those who have experience. They trainers are not employed full time.

What is the content and objectives of the initial training?

Freely determined by the local Bars The objective is to train well informed lawyers. The content: legal, ethical and rules of profession knowledge.

Who designs the initial training programmes?

The programs are designed by the chief executives of the local Bars.

What methodology is used for the training?

Face to face lectures and e-learning trainings.

What practical elements of the training are applicable to the trainees?

Trainees should be present at the lectures, the consequence of specified amount of absence is not accepted.

How are trainees evaluated/assessed? How often and by whom?

It depends on the local Bar’s expectations, for example, the Budapest Bar has a mainly annual written exam at the end of the semester, with an oral exam for trainees who fail the written exam. The trainers are the examiners.

Are there any training activities carried out in conjunction with other legal professionals? If yes: How does it work?


What are the specificities regarding EU law training, linguistic training and European components of initial training, for example participation in CCBE or ELF activities?

It depends on the regional Bars. For example, the Budapest Bar training program includes lectures on EU law.

How many trainees are accepted for training? Are the numbers of trainees adjusted annually and by who?

Every local Bar has the right to make the decision on the number of trainees.

Termination of the initial training and qualification process

Does the initial training conclude with a final exam? How is it organised? Who is responsible for the exam?

The Ministry of Justice manages the final exam after a three years training period giving a Decree on State Exam. The Ministry is responsible for the exam and the Ministry organises it.

Is there a further recruitment procedure to become a lawyer upon completion of the initial training?

There is no further process.

Last update: 12/07/2023

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