Initial training of lawyers in the European Union


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General description

Is initial training offered, if yes is it compulsory?

Yes, it is compulsory and lasts for 2 years.

Does initial training differentiate between categories of trainees, e.g. for in-house lawyers and advocates?

Referee advocates.

The initial, as well as the continuous training of advocates is a distinctive one, as it is for judges, prosecutors, etc.

Which entities are responsible for organising initial training?

The National Institute for professional training and improvement of lawyers of Romania.

What is the statutory basis for initial training?

Provisions included in the Law of the legal profession, nr. 51/1995.

Access to the initial training

Are there conditions for accessing the training?

There is an admission exam to the bar. Once the exam is promoted, the beneficiary can inscribe himself as member of any of the 42 local bars in Romania, and therefore must present a contract signed with an experienced lawyer, who is a member of the same bar and who will act as coordinator of the traineeship.

What is the main recruitment procedure? If it is competitive - who runs it?

The National Institute for professional training and improvement of lawyers of Romania.

Are there alternative access routes to the training?


Format and content of the initial training

What is the duration and time frames of the training?

2 years. It is determined by law.

How is the training organised?

It is run in a unitary way, at the level of each of the seven regional centers of the institute.

Who are the trainers?

Lawyers with at least 10 years of experience and university professors, acting mainly also as lawyers.

What is the content and objectives of the initial training?

Learning is organised in the form of workshops, treating exclusively or mainly on practical, specific questions.

Who designs the initial training programmes?

The National Institute for professional training and improvement of lawyers of Romania.

What methodology is used for the training?


What practical elements of the training are applicable to the trainees?

Trainee lawyers work in a legal office and may even appear in front of a court, but only on first instance level.

How are trainees evaluated/assessed? How often and by whom?

The assessment is run by the Institute.

Are there any training activities carried out in conjunction with other legal professionals? If yes: How does it work?

No, not at this level.

Such activities are carried out later, in the framework of continuous training.

What are the specificities regarding EU law training, linguistic training and European components of initial training, for example participation in CCBE or ELF activities?

EU law training is carried out during the second year of traineeship.

It is divided in EU Law, EU human rights law, EU labour law and EU judicial procedure law.

How many trainees are accepted for training? Are the numbers of trainees adjusted annually and by who?

There is no fixed number of trainees to be accepted. It depends upon the promotion of the admission exam to the bar.

Termination of the initial training and qualification process

Does the initial training conclude with a final exam? How is it organised? Who is responsible for the exam?

Yes. The exam is organised yearly and consists of items which have been discussed and analysed within the professional workshops.

The National Institute for professional training and improvement of lawyers of Romania is responsible for the exam.

Is there a further recruitment procedure to become a lawyer upon completion of the initial training?

Only if the candidate promotes an admission exam.

Last update: 12/07/2023

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