1. Article L. 132-1 of the Consumer Protection Act (Code de la consommation, CC) must be interpreted in light of the provisions in the EU Directive of 5 April 1993, which was transposed into national law by the Act of 1 February 1995.
2. Under the Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993, the ban on the use of unfair terms is designed to protect citizens when they act as consumers in contracts concluded between a professional and a consumer.
3. Under article 2 of the Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993, a consumer is a physical entity acting for purposes outside his professional capacity.
4. When the Directive was transposed, French legislators did not extend this protection to traders using markets for the purposes of their trade, but in a field that falls outside their technical expertise.