Legal notice

1. Disclaimer

2. Privacy statement

3. Personal data protection rules

4. Copyright notice


1. Disclaimer

1.1 General considerations

The positions expressed on this website are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission. While the website is run by the European Commission, responsibility for its content is shared between the Commission and the individual Member States.

The European Commission maintains this website to improve access to cross-border justice and to enhance public access to information about its initiatives and European Union policies in general. We strive to keep this information current and accurate. If errors are brought to our attention, we will try to correct them.

All interactive (electronic) services are provided "as is" and on "best effort" basis. The European Commission and the participating data/service providers disclaim any and all liability, either explicit or implied. In particular we cannot guarantee the up-to-date state of the data, its correctness or ensure uninterrupted service availability or the availability of any linked external sites.

For some of its functionalities the European e-Justice Portal uses data from GeoNames on the basis of a CC BY 3.0 licence. No changes to the data are made.

The Commission disclaims all liability with regard to any damages suffered due to data corruption, data loss or any other type of adverse effect caused by intentional or unintentional system operation. This disclaimer is not intended to limit the liability of the Commission in contravention of any requirements laid down in applicable national law or to exclude its liability for matters which may not be excluded under that law. The applicable law is Belgian law and the Belgian courts are competent in case of dispute.

The European Commission may revise the Disclaimer and the Terms and conditions indicated below at any time without prior notice and you should always refer to the current version of this text as published on the web site.

1.2 Aspects related to content pages

Content pages are either "European" in nature or "Member State" pages, where each EU Member State (through its various authorities) is responsible for the content and the links on its own pages. This information is:

  • of a general nature only and is not intended to address the specific circumstances of any particular individual or entity;
  • not necessarily comprehensive, complete, accurate or up to date;
  • sometimes linked to external sites over which the Commission services have no control and for which the Commission assumes no responsibility;
  • not professional or legal advice (if you need specific advice, you should always consult a suitably qualified professional).

Any reference in the content pages to a person of the male sex shall be deemed also to constitute a reference to a person of the female sex, and vice versa, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

Some of the content pages are machine translated. Please note that machine translations are provided temporarily and only for contextual purposes. The owners of these pages accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the quality of machine translated texts.

Please note that it cannot be guaranteed that a document available on-line exactly reproduces an officially adopted text. Only European Union legislation published in paper editions of the Official Journal of the European Union prior to 1 July 2013 and its electronic versions published after 1 July 2013 have legal value. It is our goal to minimise disruptions caused by technical incidents. However some data or information on our site may have been created or structured in files or formats that are not error-free and we cannot guarantee that our service will not be interrupted or otherwise affected by such problems.

1.3 Aspects related to interactive services

For all interactive services the following terms and conditions apply:

By using these services you agree to use these exclusively for their intended purpose. You shall not use the services, or any personal data returned by the services, for any other intent or purpose, and in particular such data shall not be used in relation to carrying out commercial, marketing or advertising activities.

You are not allowed to copy in bulk in an automated fashion (harvest), and/or distribute the data received through the provided services via any means.

You are allowed to link to the European e-Justice Portal and its pages.

Service-specific aspects:

1.3.1 Interconnection of Insolvency Registers

This service allows you to find information on insolvency proceedings in the participating Member States' national registers. There is no centralised EU insolvency register. Your request is sent to the national registers and the reply is sent back within a few seconds. For the time being the service is provided on a "best effort" basis.

1.3.2 Find a Lawyer

"Find a lawyer" is a service provided to the general public by the European Commission and the participating national bar associations and law societies.

1.3.3 Find a Notary

"Find a Notary" is a service provided to the general public by the European Commission, the Council of Notariats of the European Union (CNUE), and other participating national chambers of notariats.

1.3.4 ECLI

The ECLI search interface is a service provided to the general public by the European Commission in cooperation with the participating case law providers. The Commission has made this service available to facilitate access to justice in a cross-border context by allowing EU citizens and legal practitioners to easily locate case law featuring an ECLI identifier.

1.3.5 Competent court/authority search

The competent court/authority search interface is a service provided to the general public by the European Commission in cooperation with the participating national judicial authorities or other competent bodies. The Commission has made this service available to facilitate access to justice in a cross-border context by allowing EU citizens and legal practitioners to easily locate the competent national court. Please note that although every effort has been made to ascertain the accuracy of the results, there may be some exceptional cases concerning the determination of competence that are not necessarily covered.

1.3.6 Electronic submission of claims (e-CODEX)

The electronic submission of your claim using e-CODEX technology (European Order for Payment, European Small claims) is provided through the interconnection of a large number of IT systems operated both by the European Commission and by the national administrations. Your claim may exceptionally fail to reach the designated court. Proof of transmission (or of transmission failure) will be provided to you to the extent possible, but please be advised that in some Member States this proof is limited to delivery of your claim to the central national IT system established for this purpose. It will not always be possible to produce proof of delivery to the intended court.

All notifications concerning proof of transmission or receipt of court replies will be sent to the email address associated with the European Commission's user authentication service (EU Login) account that you logged in with.

The European Commission cannot be held liable for failure of delivery of your claim or for failure of producing evidence of its transmission (or of its transmission failure). Equally, the Commission cannot be held liable for failure of delivering communication related to your claim from the court back to you or notifying you of receipt of such communication.

Unless you request its deletion, your communication with and from the court will - except for circumstances of force majeure - remain available for your consultation in the European e-Justice Portal for a period of a least one year. You are advised to save your own copy of all communication you wish to access beyond this period. The European Commission cannot be held liable for any damages you may suffer due to the temporary or permanent unavailability of the communication between you and the court or for failing to notify you in advance of this communication being deleted.

1.3.7 Electronic signature

Claims submitted electronically (e-CODEX) have to be signed electronically before they can be sent via the European e-Justice Portal. The Portal provides a tool to assist you in this process, but does not impose the use of this tool: you have the possibility to sign your claim electronically using your own means and upload it to the Portal. The European Commission cannot be held liable for any damages you may suffer following a refusal, by the court or any other party, of an electronic signature created with the tool provided by the European e-Justice Portal.

1.3.8 Find a company/ Interconnection of business registers

This service allows you to look for and get information about companies registered in business registers in the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein or Norway. It is part of the Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS), set up in line with EU law. The system connects the national business registers which make available the company information.

1.3.9 European Training Platform (ETP)

This service is a search tool. The ETP allows justice professionals (judges, prosecutors, court staff, lawyers, notaries, bailiffs, court experts, court translators and interpreters, prison staff, probation officers…) to find information about training courses on EU law and training material for self-learning on EU law.

Training providers for justice professionals inform potential trainees about the training activities they organise on EU law in the European Union in different languages. The European Commission contributes to the platform with ready-to-use training materials or handbooks produced notably thanks to EU financial support.

Appropriate content of the ETP consists in descriptions of training activities and training material. Users of the ETP are responsible for taking precautions as necessary to protect themselves and their computer systems from viruses, worms, trojan horses, and other harmful or destructive content. The European Commission disclaims any responsibility for any harm resulting from the use by users of the service or from any downloading by those persons of content there available.

The European Commission does not have any control over those non-ETP websites and webpages and is not responsible for their contents or their use. By linking to a non-ETP website or webpage, the European Commission does not represent or imply that it endorses such website or webpage. The European Commission disclaims any responsibility for any harm resulting from the use of non-ETP websites and webpages.

Registration to take part in courses is handled by the training providers themselves as per the internet links indicated in the course description. The European Commission cannot be held liable for the cancellation of training activities and material, for their content, accuracy, legality and perceived quality.

As the European Commission asks others to respect its intellectual property rights, it respects the intellectual property rights of others. If a user believes that material located on or linked to by a survey violates copyright, the user is encouraged to notify the European Commission. The European Commission will respond to all such notices, including as required or appropriate by removing the infringing material or disabling all links to the infringing material. The European Commission will terminate a user's access to and use of the application if, under appropriate circumstances, the user is determined to be a repeat infringer of the copyrights or other intellectual property rights of the European Commission or others.

Neither the European Commission nor its suppliers and licensors make any warranty that the ETP will be error free or that access thereto will be continuous or uninterrupted.

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2. Privacy statement

This privacy statement provides information about the processing and the protection of your personal data.

Processing operation: European e-Justice Portal

Data Controller: Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers (DG JUST), Unit B3 E-Justice, IT and document management

Record references: DPR-EC-01506, DPR-EC-01507, DPR-EC-01508, DPR-EC-01509, DPR-EC-01510, DPR- EC-03328, DPR-EC-08846

2.1 Introduction

The European Commission (hereinafter “the Commission”) is committed to the protection of your personal data and to ensuring that your privacy is respected. The Commission collects and further processes personal data pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and on the free movement of such data (repealing Regulation (EC) No 45/2001).

This privacy statement explains the reasons for the processing of your personal data, the way we collect, handle and ensure protection of all personal data provided, how that information is used and what rights you have in relation to your personal data. It also specifies the contact details of the responsible Data Controller with whom you may exercise your rights, the Data Protection Officer and the European Data Protection Supervisor.The information herein pertains to the following data processing operations:

The European e-Justice Portal (hereinafter “the e-Justice Portal”) has been established with the objective to provide the general public with access to information, interconnected national databases, interactive services allowing users to communicate directly with the appropriate authorities in another Member State, and to provide contact information of competent national contact authorities and bodies. Therefore, the e-Justice Portal retrieves data for the very specific purpose of combination and alignment of data from different national databases. The Portal also processes personal data in the context of e-mail communication between the Commission, citizens, responsible content administrators and contact points (Data record: DPR-EC-01506).

Moreover, specific data processing operations take place in the context of some of the services provided by the e-Justice Portal, e.g. in the context of the “Find a Lawyer”, “Find a Notary” and “Find a company” tools, the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) Search Engine, the e-CODEX communication tool, the Competent Court Database (CDB), the Fundamental Rights Interactive Tool (FRIT) and the Land Registers Interconnection system (LRI).

Please note that it is up to Member States and other bodies such as professional associations and non-profit organisations to operate the public databases providing services via the Portal. Data are collected by such entities for the purpose of compliance with national law and to provide necessary information at national level. Such databases are interconnected through the Portal in such a way that the information available at national level can be accessed via the Portal. It is up to Member States and other bodies such as professional associations and non-profit organisations to ensure security of the processing of personal data in their databases.

The Commission provides technical specifications for interconnection to the entitites mentioned above. The cooperation between the entities mentioned above and the Commission is ensured on voluntary basis (with the exception of BRIS and IRI 2.0 which are mandatory interconnections according to the applicable law[1]). Therefore, such cooperation is not regulated by any formal arrangement, such as a contract. The Commission ensures security of processing personal data strictly only within the scope of its responsibilities as data controller within the e-Justice Portal.

These data processing operations are carried out by DG JUST, Unit B3 E-Justice, IT and document management as further elaborated below.

2.2 Why and how do we process your personal data?

Purpose of the processing operation: DG JUST, Unit B3 E-Justice, IT and document management processes personal data for the main purpose of providing a “single one-stop (electronic) shop" for information on justice and access to European judicial procedures e-Justice Portal core platform - DPR-EC-01506).

In addition, separate processing operations take place in the context of the various additional functionalities offered by the e-Justice Portal:

Find a lawyer – Find a notary

“Find a Lawyer” and “Find a Notary” are two services provided to the general public by the Commission in collaboration with the relevant national associations of legal professionals (Data protection record: DPR-EC-01507). These associations are responsible for the initial collection of contact details in accordance with the applicable legislation on the protection of personal data (the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)). The Commission provides a search tool to enable cross-border searches for data stored aby the national associations. The Commission does neither store such contact details nor the search results.

ECLI search engine

The European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) Search Engine (Data protection record DPR-EC-01508) is a service provided to the general public by the Commission in cooperation with the participating case law providers, with the objective of facilitating access to European and national case law (Data protection record: DPR-EC-01508). Member States and their judicial authorities are responsible for the publication of national case law. The Commission provides a search tool to enable cross-border searches for such case law, which might contain certain personal data. The Commission does neither store case law nor the search results.

e-CODEX

The e-Justice Portal also provides a service enabling an electronic exchange of official forms pursuant to certain European cross-border legal instruments. This is achieved in the framework of an underlying secure communication infrastructure known as e-CODEX (Data protection record: DPR-EC-01509). E-CODEX is set of software products which allows direct secure cross-border electronic messages exchange in the judicial area. It is based on a decentralised architecture, designed to connect existing IT systems at national level.

e-CODEX facilitates the exchange of forms pursuant to specific European legal instruments. Apart from personal data required for the exchange of valid forms, processing of personal data is also taking place in the context of electronic signature. Such processing is also carried out in the context of providing information on the competent authorities in those cases when such functions are carried out by individuals. Additionaly, metadata, which may contain personal data, are logged for troubleshooting purposes (Data protection record DPR-EC-01509).

Court Database – Fundamental Rights Interactive Tool

The Competent Court Database (CDB) and the Fundamental Rights Interactive Tool (FRIT) are two services provided to the general public by the Commission and Member States allowing users to identify the authorities competent for certain European cross-border legal instruments and the enforcement of their fundamental rights (Data protection record DPR-EC-01510). Member States provide the Commission with the relevant contact details. The Commission is only responsible for the publication of such data.

These tools are processing contact details of competent authorities (including for the enforcement of fundamental rights); in certain cases contact details may refer to an individual person.

Find a company – Business Registers Interconnection System

The Find a company/ Interconnection of business registers service allows you to look for and get information about companies registered in business registers in the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein or Norway. It is part of the Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS), set up in line with EU law. The system connects the national business registers which make available the company information (Data protection record DPR- EC-03328). While most of the data on companies in the business registers are non-personal, some of the documents obtained e.g. names of directors, legal representatives, shareholders etc.

Land Registers Interconnection system

DG JUST B.3 collects and uses your personal information to facilitate the functioning of the Land Registers Interconnection system (LRI).

The LRI core services provided by all registries are to register, examine and store land and property information, such as location and ownership, and to make this information available to the public and professional customers

National contact points are responsible for the initial collection of relevant information in accordance with the applicable legislation on the protection of personal data (the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)). The purposes of processing personal data are defined either in national legislation or by respective national associations. The Commission is not responsible for the definition of purposes for such processing at national level. The Commission neither stores any contact details provided nor the obtained search results.

Other data processing in the e-Justice Portal

The e-Justice Portal processes personal data of users for e-mail notification purposes, as well as personal data of the administrators responsible for the management of the specific functionalities of the Portal and its systems.

The e-Justice Portal authenticates its registered users through the Commission’s EU Login service. A separate privacy statement explains the nature of processing of personal data by EU Login.

None of the personal data processing operations are used for automated decision-making, including profiling (Article 24 of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725).

2.3 On what legal ground(s) do we process your personal data?

We process your personal data, because processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the Union institution or body (Article 5(1)(a) of the Regulation). The e-Justice Portal, and its various features and services, is provided further to Article 81 and 82 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). In addition, the processing of personal data in the context of the Find a company/ Interconnection of business registers service is also carried out on the basis of Article 5(1)(b) of the Regulation. This processing is necessary in order to provide company documents (which may contain personal data) to the users of the “Find a company” page of the European e-Justice Portal, as required by Directive (EU) 2017/1132 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2017 relating to certain aspects of company law.

The processing of personal data is also governed by the Commission Decision on "The protection of personal data in the European e-Justice Portal" of 5 June 2014.

2.4 Which personal data do we collect and further process?

The e-Justice Portal core platform

In the context of the general functioning of the European e-Justice Portal, the DG JUST, Unit B3 E-Justice, IT and document management processes the following categories of personal data:

  • Personal data of the e-Justice Portal content administrators, personal data provided by users when using the e-Justice Portal, including in the context of contacts with the support mailbox (e-Justice Portal core platform - DPR-EC-01506).

Moreover, in order to carry out those processing operations, DG JUST, Unit B3 E-Justice, IT and document management collects the following categories of personal data:

  • Personal data collected in the context of EU login (name and e-mail address). We obtain these personal data from the EU login service.
  • Personal data of administrators (name and e-mail). We have obtained such personal data from the relevant national authorities.

The provision of such personal data is not mandatory.

Personal data processed in the context of the Portal’s services

  • Names and contact details (such as, for instance, e-mail address, telephone number) of lawyers and notaries (Find a lawyer / Find a notary - DPR-EC-01507).
  • Personal data included in European and national case law, made available in accordance with applicable European or national legislation (ECLI search engine- DPR-EC-01508).
  • Personal data necessary to electronically exchange forms pursuant to the supported European legal instruments; personal data in the context of use of electronic signatures, personal data maintained as metadata necessary for troubleshooting purposes (e-CODEX - DPR-EC-01509).
  • Names and contact details (such as, for instance, e-mail address, telephone number) of individuals who may be competent in the context of civil law procedures and/or for the enforcement of citizens’ fundamental rights (Court Database – Fundamental Rights Interactive Tool - DPR-EC-015010).
  • The public documents available through the “Find a company” page of the European e-Justice Portal (e.g. instrument of constitution, statutes, accounting documents etc.) may contain personal data related to a company (e.g. directors, legal representatives, shareholders etc.). The categories may vary according to the national business register of provenience, and may include information such as: gender (Mr/Ms), name, surname(s), parents’ names, date of birth, ID/passport number, date of issuance and expiry date, tax number or other national identification numbers, address and signature (DPR-EC-03328)
  • Names of land owners, their address, date of birth, marital status, signatures, names of successors etc. and any other categories of personal data determined in relevant national legislation of the respective Member State for the purpose of the functioning of the Land Register Interconnection system (DPR-EC-08846)

In the context of services which rely on data provided by third parties, the e-Justice Portal disseminates personal data mentioned above in case they are already being disclosed by other data controllers. The initial collection of such data may be mandatory under the applicable legislation.

2.5 How long do we keep your personal data?

DG JUST, Unit B3 E-Justice, IT and document management only keeps your personal data for the time necessary to fulfil the purpose of collection or further processing, namely for:

  • Data of content administrators and contact persons are stored until the person filfils his or her functions; the validity of the data is checked in the context of an annual update of the content of the e-Justice Portal; rectifications are also carried out upon request (DPR-EC-01506, DPR-EC-01507, DPR-EC-01508, DPR-EC-01509 and DPR-EC-01510).
  • Personal data are retrieved from the databases of the participating bar associations and law societies. They are not stored by the e-Justice Portal, and are displayed only for the duration of the visualisation of search results (Find a lawyer / Find a notary - DPR-EC-01507).
  • Personal data may be included in judicial decisions provided by European and national partners publishing case law (“ECLI providers”). The e-Justice Portal stores these data as part of each decision’s metadata and search indexes, as long as the providing entity does not anonymise or remove the respective judicial decision (ECLI search engine - DPR-EC-01508).
  • With regard to the e-Justice Portal, personal data are being stored only during the preparation of relevant form by the applicant. Personal data are however stored in users' "mailboxes" on the eTrustEx component of e-CODEX. The maximum retention period is 10 years. Maximum retention period for data related to troubleshooting purposes is 5 years (e-CODEX - DPR-EC-01509).
  • Personal data obtained via the Find a company functionality are stored on the platform for 6 days from the moment the file is made available for downloading (DPR-EC-03328)
  • Personal data collected for the Land Registers Interconnection system is processed for the time necessary to fulfil the purpose of collection or further processing as defined in relevant national legislation of the respective Member State. Personal data are stored as long as necessary to meet all legal and fiscal obligations (DPR-EC-08846).

2.6 How do we protect and safeguard your personal data?

All personal data in electronic format (e-mails, documents, databases, uploaded batches of data, etc.) are stored on the servers of the European Commission. All processing operations are carried out pursuant to the Commission Decision (EU, Euratom) 2017/46 of 10 January 2017 on the security of communication and information systems in the European Commission.

In order to protect your personal data, the Commission has put in place a number of technical and organisational measures. Technical measures include appropriate actions to address online security, risk of data loss, alteration of data or unauthorised access, taking into consideration the risk presented by the processing and the nature of the personal data being processed. Organisational measures include restricting access to the personal data solely to authorised persons with a legitimate need to know for the purposes of this processing operation.

2.7 Who has access to your personal data and to whom is it disclosed?

With respect to the data available on the public-facing component of the e-Justice Portal, access to personal data is provided to the general public. Personal data processed for determination of responsible technical contact points and processed for support and troubleshooting purposes (including personal data retrieved by the EU Login system) are only accessibly by authorised Commission staff according to the “need to know” principle. Such staff abide by statutory, and if relevant, additional confidentiality agreements.

If you contact us by using the e-Justice Portal’s “Your Feedback” tool, authorised staff will process your personal data. Subject to your consent, we may also forward your message (including personal data contained therein) to other competent European institutions or national authorities.

Personal data is processed in the context of collecting web traffic statistics. This is done by the Commission Europa Analytics system. You may learn more about what and how personal data are processed by Europa Analytics here.

2.8 What are your rights and how can you exercise them?

You have specific rights as a data subject under Chapter III (Articles 14-25) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725, in particular the right to access your personal data and to rectify them in case they are inaccurate or incomplete. Where applicable, you have the right to erase your personal data, to restrict the processing of your personal data, to object to the processing, and the right to data portability.

In cases where the e-Justice Portal makes available personal data initially collected by third parties (e.g. Member State registers and databases, we will transfer requests for the exercise of data subjects’ rights to the appropriate data controllers.

You have the right to object to the processing of your personal data, which is lawfully carried out pursuant to Article 5(1)(a) on grounds relating to your particular situation.

You can exercise your rights by contacting the Data Controller, or in case of conflict, the Data Protection Officer. If necessary, you can also address the European Data Protection Supervisor. Their contact information is given under Heading 9 below.

Where you wish to exercise your rights in the context of one or several specific processing operations, please provide their description (i.e. their Record reference(s) as specified herein) in your request.

2.9 Contact information

The Data Controller

If you would like to exercise your rights under Regulation (EU) 2018/1725, if you have comments, questions or concerns, or if you would like to submit a complaint regarding the collection and use of your personal data, please feel free to contact the responsible Data Controller: DG JUST Unit B3 E-Justice, IT and document management (JUST-E-JUSTICE@ec.europa.eu)

The Data Protection Officer (DPO) of the Commission

You may contact the Data Protection Officer (DATA-PROTECTION-OFFICER@ec.europa.eu) with regard to issues related to the processing of your personal data under Regulation (EU) 2018/1725.

The European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS)

You have the right to have recourse (i.e. you can lodge a complaint) to the European Data Protection Supervisor (edps@edps.europa.eu) if you consider that your rights under Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 have been infringed as a result of the processing of your personal data by the Data Controller.

2.10 Where to find more detailed information?

The Commission Data Protection Officer (DPO) publishes the register of all processing operations on personal data by the Commission, which have been documented and notified to him. You may access the register via the following link: http://ec.europa.eu/dpo-register.

These specific processing operations have been included in the DPO’s public register under the following references: DPR-EC-01506, DPR-EC-01507, DPR-EC-01508, DPR-EC-01509 and DPR-EC-01510.



[1] BRIS - Please see Article 17 of the Directive (EU) 2017/1132 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2017 relating to certain aspects of company law; IRI.2.0 - Please see Article 25 of the Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2015 on insolvency proceedings.

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3. Personal data protection rules

The European Union is committed to user privacy. The policy on "protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community institutions" is based on Regulation (EC) N° 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018.

This general policy covers the European Union's family of institutional Web Sites, within the eu domain.

Although you can browse through most of these Web Sites without giving any information about yourself, in some cases, personal information is required in order to provide the e-services you request.

Web Sites that require such information treat it according to the policy described in the Regulation mentioned above and provide information about the use of your data in their specific privacy policy statements.

In this respect:

  • For each specific e-service, a controller determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data and ensures conformity of the specific e-service with the privacy policy;
  • Within each Institution, a Data Protection Officer ensures that the provisions of the Regulation are applied and advises controllers on fulfilling their obligations (see art. 43-45 of the Regulation);
  • For all the Institutions, the European Data Protection Supervisor will act as an independent supervisory authority (see art. 52 to 60 of the Regulation).
  • The European Union's family of institutional Web Sites, within the eu domain, provides links to third party sites. Since we do not control them, we encourage you to review their privacy policies.

What is an e-service?

An e-service on EUROPA is a service or resource made available on the Internet in order to improve the communication between citizens and businesses on the one hand and the European Institutions on the other hand.

Three types of e-services are or will be offered by EUROPA:

  1. Information services that provide citizens, media, business, administrations and other decision makers with easy and effective access to information, thus increasing transparency and understanding of the policies and activities of the EU;
  2. Interactive communication services that allow better contacts with citizens, business, civil society and public actors thus facilitating policy consultations, and feedback mechanisms, in order to contribute to the shaping of policies, the activities and the services of the EU;
  3. Transaction services that allow access to all basic forms of transactions with the EU, e.g. procurement, financial operations, recruitment, event enrolment, acquisition or purchase of documents etc.

Information contained in a specific privacy statement.

A specific privacy policy statement will contain the following information about the use of your data:

  • What information is collected, for what purpose and through which technical means the EU collects personal information exclusively to the extent necessary to fulfil a specific purpose. The information will not be re-used for an incompatible purpose;
  • To whom your information is disclosed. The EU will only disclose information to third parties if that is necessary for the fulfilment of the purpose(s) identified above and to the mentioned (categories of) recipients. The EU will not divulge your personal data for direct marketing purposes;
  • How you can access your information, verify its accuracy and, if necessary, correct it. As a data subject you also have the right to object to the processing of your personal data on legitimate compelling grounds except when it is collected in order to comply with a legal obligation, or is necessary for the performance of a contract to which you are a party, or is to be used for a purpose for which you have given your unambiguous consent;
  • How long your data is kept. The EU only keeps the data for the time necessary to fulfil the purpose of collection or further processing;
  • What are the security measures taken to safeguard your information against possible misuse or unauthorised access;
  • Whom to contact if you have queries or complaints.

Europa Analytics

Europa Analytics is the corporate service which measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the European Commission's websites on EUROPA.

By default, website visitors are tracked using the first-party persistent cookies from Europa. You may choose not to be tracked by Piwik (opt-out). If you change your mind, you can choose to be tracked again by Piwik (opt-in).

To check your current status and make your choice, tick the corresponding box in the text appearing below.

Choosing not to be tracked by Piwik does not affect your navigation experience on Europa sites.

More about Europa Analytics

How do we treat e-mails you send us?

All webpages have a "Your feedback" link, which allows you to send your comments to a specific functional mailbox. When you send such a message, the personal data provided is collected by the addressee only to the extent necessary to reply. If the management team of the mailbox is unable to answer your question, it will forward your e-mail to another service. You will be informed, via e-mail, about which service your question has been forwarded to. The website will not maintain records of any e-mail exchanges carried out using this functionality.

If you have any questions about the processing of your e-mail and related personal data, do not hesitate to include them in your message.

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4. Copyright notice

© European Union (2021)

The re-use of documents held by the Commission or on its behalf by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Publications office) is subject to the conditions determined by Commission Decision of 12 December 2011 (2011/833/EU, Euratom) on the re-use of Commission information. The re-use of documents is free of charge.

Reproduction is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated. Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software, etc.), such permission shall cancel the above-mentioned general permission and shall clearly indicate any restrictions on use.

© Kingdom of Belgium (2021)

Conditions for re-use (Creative Commons-0 licence)

  • Unless otherwise stated, the information on this website is free of rights and may be used for private, association, scientific and commercial purposes. The federal government does, however, recommend stating the source and date of the information that is reused.
  • Where prior authorisation is required, or where specific conditions are necessary, re-use restrictions are explicitly mentioned. The re-use of multimedia content (photographs, images, sound, videos, etc.), including the content contained in downloadable documents (brochures, etc.), is always subject to prior approval.
  • The federal government makes every effort to ensure that this website is correct and up to date. Should an error be detected, it undertakes to make the necessary corrections as soon as possible.

More information on access to and re-use of government information can be found at http://data.gov.be/nl/wettelijk-kader (French and Dutch).

© Republic of Bulgaria (2021)

Information provided by the government of the Republic of Bulgaria is public. The information that is published on the Bulgarian pages of the European e-Justice Portal is freely available and may be downloaded/reproduced/translated/adapted in all editions, forms and media for non-commercial purposes with the exception of materials in which explicit copyright protection clause is envisaged or for which prior consent of the copyright holder is needed.

© Czech Republic (2021)

The use of documents published on this website that are held by the Czech Republic or by third parties on behalf of the Czech Republic is subject to national copyright rules, unless otherwise indicated. Except where otherwise specified, under Section 31 of the Copyright Act (Act No 121/2000) reproduction of content from Czech websites is authorised provided the source is cited and the purpose is non-commercial. Except where the Copyright Act provides otherwise, works may be freely used without permission, provided the use is for a personal need of a natural person that is not for the purpose of obtaining direct or indirect economic or commercial benefit.

Where Czech law requires prior permission for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information, that permission overrides the abovementioned general permission and indicates any restrictions on use.

It should be noted that the information published on this website may not be complete, exhaustive, accurate or up to date and is not intended to replace professional legal advice. Only Czech legal acts that have been published as required by law in the Collection of Legislative Acts (Sbírka zákonů) are legally binding.

© Kingdom of Denmark (2021)

Information on the European e-Justice Portal provided by the Danish Government is not subject to copyright conditions.

© The Federal Republic of Germany (2021)

The re-use, by third parties, of documents featured on this website and held by The Federal Republic of Germany, is protected by copyright rules as set forth under German law, European Union and international conventions. We assume no liability for completeness, editorial and technical errors, omissions or the accuracy of information on this website.

In particular, we make no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the completeness or accuracy of information obtained through links to external websites.

Operators of websites are responsible for the content they make available for use on their own websites, subject to the provisions of general law. This “own content” is to be distinguished from links to content provided by operators of external websites.

Hyperlinks to the contents of external websites are provided for informational purposes only.

Responsibility for the content of external websites lies solely with the provider of such content. External websites are carefully scrutinised and checked to the best of our knowledge and belief before any corresponding link is created. However, we make no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the completeness or accuracy of information obtained through external hyperlinks. The content of external websites can be changed at any time without the knowledge of the German government.

With respect to all links provided on this website, we explicitly declare that we have no control over the design and content of external websites that can be accessed through links on this website; in addition, such links do not imply endorsement of the linked websites or their content. This declaration applies to all pages on this website and all links contained therein.

Please inform the German contact point at redaktion@justiz.de if any links to websites are provided whose content may be deemed objectionable.

The online editorial staff of the German national pages reserves the right, without prior notice, to change, supplement or remove the information provided on this website.

For more information please visit the following link.

© Republic of Estonia (2021)

Information provided by the government of the Republic of Estonia is subject to copyright conditions. Information that is published on the Republic of Estonia pages of the European e-Justice Portal, however, is freely available and may be downloaded/reproduced/translated/adapted in all editions, forms and media for commercial or non-commercial purposes providing that the source of the material is identified and its copyright status is acknowledged. Content used from the Republic of Estonia pages of the European e-Justice Portal must be reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context.

© Republic of Croatia (2021)

Information on the European e-Justice Portal provided by the Government of the Republic of Croatia is not subject to copyright conditions. This does not extend to any material which may be under the copyright of a third party, such as referrals to content on third party websites.

According to Croatian Copyright and Related Rights Act (OJ No. 167/03, 79/07, 80/11, 125/11, 141/13, 127/14, 62/17 and 96/18), official texts in the domain of legislation, administration, judiciary (e.g. acts, regulations, decisions, reports, minutes, judgments) and other official works and their collections, published for the purpose of officially informing the public, are not subject to copyright protection.

© Ireland (2021)

The material featured on this site produced by Ireland is subject to Government of Ireland copyright, according to the Copyright and Related Rights Acts 2000. The material may be downloaded to file or printer for personal use only. Where this is being issued to others the source and copyright status must be acknowledged.

The permission to reproduce Government of Ireland copyright material does not extend to any material on this site which may be the property of a third party. Authorisation to reproduce such material must be obtained from the copyright holders concerned.

© Hellenic Republic (2021)

Information on the European e-Justice Portal provided by the Government of Greece is not subject to copyright conditions. Certain external links, however, may be subject to copyright law. Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software etc.), such permission shall cancel the above-mentioned general permission and shall clearly indicate any restrictions on use.

© Spanish Ministry of Justice (2021)

Access to and use of content supplied by Spain on the e-justice portal, the information contained and the attached links and services are the prerogative of the Ministry of Justice or the bodies collaborating with it and are protected by the appropriate intellectual and industrial property rights. The use, reproduction, distribution, communication to the public or transformation of this content or any other similar activity is totally prohibited without express authorisation by the Ministry of Justice. The user's licence to use any content from this portal is limited to the downloading and private use of that content, provided it remains intact.

© French Republic (2021)

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

The content of this website is the exclusive property of the Ministry of Justice and Freedoms and/or of the authors or copyright holders, and is protected by the French and international legislation applicable to international property rights and, in particular, by the provisions of the French Intellectual Property Code.

This applies among other things to the editorial features of the website, the presentation of the screens and the software needed for using the site, and to logos, images, photographs and graphics of whatever kind.

The Ministry of Justice and Freedoms authorises users only to view the content; this excludes, in particular, the re-use of all or part of the content of the site for any purpose whatsoever.

Reproduction is authorised only in digital form, on the computer used for accessing the site, for the purpose of viewing the pages consulted by the user’s navigation software.

Any total or partial representation of the website by any company whatsoever without the express authorisation of the Ministry of Justice and Freedoms is prohibited, and would constitute counterfeiting within the meaning of Articles L.335-2 et seq. of the French Intellectual Property Code.

The link to French Intellectual Property Code.

The chapter of the Code relating to criminal penalties can be accessed here.

© Italian Republic (2021)

The re-use of documents held by the Italian Ministry of Justice and other public Institutions or on their behalf by third entities featured on this website is subject to national copyright rules unless otherwise indicated.

Reproduction of content on Italian Ministry of Justice and other public Institutions' pages is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated.

Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software, etc.), such permission shall cancel the above-mentioned general permission and shall clearly indicate any restrictions on use.

© Republic of Cyprus (2021)

The re-use of documents held by Cyprus or on their behalf by third entities featured on this website is subject to national copyright rules unless otherwise indicated. Reproduction of content on Cypriot pages is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated. Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software etc.), such permission supersedes the above-mentioned general permission and shall clearly indicate any restrictions on use.

© Republic of Latvia (2021)

Information provided by the government of Latvia is public and is not subject to copyright conditions. In that respect, information that is published on the Latvian pages of the European e-Justice Portal is freely available and may be downloaded/reproduced/translated/adapted in all editions, forms and media for commercial or non-commercial purposes.

© Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania (2021)

Information provided by the Republic of Lithuania is protected by the Lithuanian Law on copyright and related rights and may be freely used provided the source is acknowledged.

© Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (2021)

Reproduction of the content and information presented in the Luxembourg pages and maintained by the Luxembourg State or other parties is, unless otherwise indicated, subject to Luxembourg law.

Unless specified otherwise, reproduction of the information contained in the Luxembourg pages is authorised for non-commercial purposes provided the source is expressly cited.

Where prior authorisation is required for reproducing or using text-based or multimedia information (sounds, images, software, etc.), that stipulation cancels the general authorisation, and will, if need be, indicate any restriction on use.

The Luxembourg State declines to accept any liability regarding the use of the information contained in the Luxembourg pages. It should be noted that the information published in these pages is not necessarily complete, exhaustive, exact or up to date. Should there be discrepancies between the texts published in these pages and the original documents, the original documents, as published in the Mémorial, are applicable.

The Luxembourg State’s pages refer sometimes to pages maintained by other parties over which the Luxembourg State has no control and in respect of which it declines to accept any liability.

The Luxembourg State accepts no liability for any prejudice caused to the user's computer facility by the use of pages maintained by the Luxembourg State or others.

The Luxembourg State declines to accept any liability in the event of the service provided by these pages being suspended, even temporarily.

It is not the purpose of these disclaimers of liability to circumvent the requirements of the applicable legislation, or to exclude liability in cases in which it cannot be excluded under the aforesaid legislation.

© Hungary (2021)

The re-use of documents held by Hungary or on its behalf by third entities featured on this website is subject to Hungarian copyright law unless otherwise indicated. Private and official reproduction of content on Hungary's pages is authorised, provided the source is indicated, save where otherwise stated. Any other use requires prior authorisation of the right-holder.

© Republic of Malta (2021)

Copyright/Authorisation to Reproduce

The Government of Malta, jointly with its Ministries and Departments, as well as the Authorities and website authors, are making an effort to maintain the reliability of the information contained in this website but cannot ensure that the information which is published on some of their websites or of external links is complete, actual and correct and therefore they insist that the information found therein should not be considered as correct and complete information about any subject. Neither the quality and continuous accessibility nor that there will not be interruptions caused by technical issues can be ensured. Therefore, they cannot accept responsibility for any prejudice, loss or damage that could be caused through the use of the information, since the information shown is intended solely as a general guide. The Government of Malta reserves the right to change, add or delete parts or whole pages, without specifically notifying about this, for an interim period.

The Government of Malta, jointly with its Ministries and Departments, as well as the Authorities and the authors of websites, do not provide quality control for external links. The inclusion of the name of any company or trader in the pages should not be understood as a recommendation of products and/or services provided by that company or trader.

These pages are not intended to offer legal advice. This remains the prerogative of the legal profession.

If you spot any information on this site which you think is incorrect or misleading, please e-mail the webmaster about it, or use the feedback form.

The material on this website is covered by the provisions of the Copyright Act, of the Laws of Malta, the policies and the regulations and every international agreement which mentions the Government of Malta. The information on this website is available for personal use and for public use which is not commercial. Keeping these two purposes in mind, it may be reproduced for no charge or other need for authorisation from the Government of Malta, provided that the material which is reproduced is a true copy of the original and the Government of Malta is identified as its source. The material reproduced shall in no way be represented as the official version, not even as produced jointly with or with the consent of the Government of Malta.

© Kingdom of the Netherlands (2021)

Information made available to the public that is provided by the government of the Netherlands is not subject to copyright conditions unless this is stated. In that respect, the information that is published on the Dutch pages of the European e-Justice Portal is freely available and may be downloaded/reproduced/translated/adapted in all editions, forms and media for commercial and not commercial purposes unless in (certain parts of) the information provided a copyright clause is included.

© Republic of Austria (2021)

All articles published on this web site are protected by copyright law, with all rights reserved.

Information presented on the Austrian pages of the European e-Justice Portal is considered public information and may be distributed or copied, provided that it is not used for commercial purposes and the source is indicated.

While the Federal Ministry of Justice (BMJ) uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information on the Austrian pages of the European e-Justice Portal, it assumes no liability as to the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of that information or for information on other web sites to which it has provided links. If and as far as mistakes and errors become known, they will be corrected as fast as possible.

Information provided through the Austrian pages of the European e-Justice Portal is of a general kind and is, hence, not adjusted to specific individual requirements of persons, entities or organisations; is not necessarily accurate, complete or up-to-date; is partly linked with other websites that are neither influenced by nor in the area of responsibility of the BMJ. It is not intended to substitute professional (legal) advisory service. If you seek personal advice, please always contact an expert in the respective field of concern first. If you have questions concerning your court proceedings, please contact the competent court. Concerning motions or applications that require complying with a term, inquiries at the competent court or authority should be made first in any case.

We do not guarantee that a document accessible through the Austrian pages of the European e-Justice Portal exactly corresponds to the officially adopted text. Only acts of the Republic of Austria which are published in the legally prescribed way in the "Federal Law Gazette of the Republic of Austria" (Bundesgesetzblatt der Republik Österreich) are legally binding.

Some of the documents accessed through the Austrian pages of the European e-Justice Portal site refer to information provided by other organizations. The BMJ, however, makes no warranty, representation or guaranty as to the accuracy, timeliness or correctness of the data provided herein.

© Ministry of Justice of Poland (2021)

The content of website is for general information purposes only and does not constitute advice. The Ministry of Justice gives no assurance or warranty regarding the accuracy, timeliness, or applicability of any of the contents.

The Ministry of Justice assumes no responsibility for information contained on this Web site and assumes no liability in respect of such information. Specific disclaimers or copyright notices may apply in addition to certain content or parts of the site. Information on the Polish pages that is not subject to specific disclaimers or copyright notices is freely available and may be downloaded/reproduced/translated/adapted in all editions, forms and media for commercial or non-commercial purposes.

The Ministry of Justice accepts no responsibility for and excludes all liability in connection with browsing this website, use of information or downloading any materials from it, including but not limited to any liability for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or misleading or defamatory statements. The information on this Web site might include opinions or views which, unless expressly stated otherwise, are not necessarily those of the Ministry of Justice.

This website contains links to external sites over which the Ministry of Justice's services have no control and for which the Ministry of Justice assumes no responsibility.

© Portuguese Republic (2021)

The re-use, by third parties, of documents contained in this portal and owned by Portugal is protected by copyright and related rights and by industrial property rights under Portuguese law, EU law and the applicable international agreements. The information contained in this portal is public and, unless expressly stated otherwise, may be reproduced and re-used provided that the source is acknowledged. Where prior authorisation for the reproduction or use of text or multimedia information (sound, image, computer programs, etc.) is required, the abovementioned generic authorisation shall not apply. Specific authorisation may be granted on request for the re-use and reproduction of documents with information that, under the conditions laid down, is not freely re-usable. A specific authorisation clearly sets out the restrictions that apply to the use of documents covered by it.

© Romania (2021)

The re-use of documents held by Romania or on their behalf by third entities featured on this website is subject to national copyright rules unless otherwise indicated. Reproduction of content on Romanian pages is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated. Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software etc.), such permission shall cancel the above-mentioned general permission and shall clearly indicate any restrictions on use.

© Republic of Slovenia (2021)

The re-use of documents held by the Slovenian Government or on its behalf by third entities featured on this website is subject to national copyright rules unless otherwise indicated. Reproduction of content on the Slovenian pages is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated and may only be reproduced for non-commercial purposes.

Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software, etc.), such permission shall cancel the above-mentioned general permission and shall clearly indicate any restrictions on use.

© Slovak Republic (2021)

The re-use of documents held by the Slovak Republic or on its behalf by third entities featured on this website is subject to Slovak copyright rules unless otherwise indicated. Limitations of copyright, rights related to copyright and database right sui generis are permitted only in special cases stipulated in the Copyright Act No. 618/2003 Coll. as amended. Use or disposal of subject matter pursuant to the Copyright Act must not conflict with its normal intended exploitation and must not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of right-holders. In other cases the prior permission for use of subject matter (license) must be obtained.

For further information about Slovak copyright law please refer to the following links:

in English in Slovak

© Republic of Finland (2021)

Information on the European e-Justice Portal provided by the Finnish Government is public and is not subject to copyright conditions.

© Kingdom of Sweden (2021)

Material published on Sweden 's pages of the European e-Justice Portal may be reproduced free of charge. The source must be acknowledged where this is specifically required.

© Crown copyright (2021)

Information produced by the UK Government is protected by Crown copyright. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

Last update: 08/07/2021

This page is maintained by the European Commission. The information on this page does not necessarily reflect the official position of the European Commission. The Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to any information or data contained or referred to in this document. Please refer to the legal notice with regard to copyright rules for European pages.