Organisation of justice – judicial systems
Types of courts - short description
The judicial system usually refers to the authorities and agencies responsible for the rule of law and legal safety. The courts are the backbone of the judicial system, which also comprises authorities responsible for crime prevention and investigations, including:
- The Police
- The Prosecution Authority and the Swedish National Economic Crimes Bureau
- National Board of Forensic Medicine (Rättsmedicinalverket)
- The Swedish Prison and Probation Service (Kriminalvården).
Other authorities may have tasks connected with the judicial system, e.g. the Enforcement Service.
Hierarchy of courts
Sweden has two parallel types of courts:
- Ordinary courts, which deal with criminal and civil cases.
- General administrative courts, which deal with cases relating to public administration.
The general courts are organised in a three-tier system: district courts, courts of appeal and the Supreme Court.
The administrative courts also have three tiers: administrative courts, administrative courts of appeal and the Supreme Administrative Court. In addition, a few special courts and tribunals have been established to hear specific kinds of cases and matters.
Administration of courts
The Ministry of Justice is responsible for matters involving the courts, including the codes of procedure and organisation of the courts. However, neither the government nor any other agency has the authority to decide how a court rules in individual cases.
The National Courts Administration is the central administrative agency for public courts, public administrative courts, regional tenancy tribunals, regional rent tribunals and the National Legal Aid Authority.
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