Costs of proceedings - Austria
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This page provides you with information on judicial costs in Austria.
Regulatory framework governing fees charged by legal professions
As a general rule the Austrian Lawyers Code (Rechtsanwaltsordnung) provides that fees paid to lawyers for services rendered can be freely agreed upon between client and lawyer.
Fees may be based on an hourly rate or on a flat-rate fee. A flat‑rate fee does not vary with the level of work and time involved. If no fee is expressly set, a reasonable level of remuneration is deemed to have been agreed on the basis of the scales of fees set out in the Lawyers’ Scales of Fees Act (Rechtsanwaltstarifgesetz) or the General Fee Criteria for Lawyers (Allgemeine Honorar-Kriterien für Rechtsanwälte).
The Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung — ZPO) and the Lawyers’ Scales of Fees Act provide that in civil proceedings the court is to determine the share of the costs that the losing party must reimburse to the successful party. These costs are based on the value of the claim and the duration and nature of the service provided. The Lawyers’ Scales of Fees Act is applicable only if this has been agreed upon between lawyer and client.
In criminal proceedings the general rule is that any person who has hired a lawyer to act on their behalf (a defendant, a party bringing a private prosecution, or a victim asking that a civil claim be joined to the criminal proceedings) must bear the resulting costs. This is also the case where defence counsel was appointed by the court, unless the conditions for the granting of legal aid are satisfied. Costs regularly differ according to the type and configuration of the court involved (e.g. a district court, a regional court with one judge sitting, a court with lay assessors, or a jury court).
The remuneration that court bailiffs (Gerichtsvollzieher) receive for their activities is laid down in the Execution Fees Act (Vollzugsgebührengesetz). The main charges are an execution fee (Vollzugsgebühr) that the applicant creditor has to pay when the application for execution is submitted, along with a flat-rate fee (Pauschalgebühr) laid down in the Court Fees Act (Gerichtsgebührengesetz — GGG).
The execution fee, charged under Section 2 of the Execution Fees Act, forms part of the costs of the execution proceedings. When awarding costs, the court may order the debtor to reimburse these costs if the creditor so requests.
The bailiff is also entitled to remuneration for taking receipt of payments. This may be deducted from the amount collected (Section 11 of the Execution Fees Act).
Fixed costs in civil proceedings
Fixed costs for litigants in civil proceedings
The court fees payable for using the services of the courts take the form either of a flat fee (Pauschalgebühr or Festgebühr) or a proportion of the basis of assessment (Hundertsatzgebühr or Tausendsatzgebühr). The level depends on the nature of the case and the value of the claim.
Stage of the civil proceeding where fixed costs must be paid
For civil proceedings at first instance a flat‑rate fee must be paid when lodging the originating application. The fee is payable only once, regardless of whether the application contains more than one claim or relates to more than one person, and covers the entire proceedings at first instance. If the relief sought is extended during the course of the proceedings, additional fees may be incurred from that point. These become payable when written pleadings are filed.
Where the relief sought is extended during the hearing, the fee is due when the expanded claim is placed on record. In the case of civil proceedings at second or third instance, the fee becomes payable when the notice of appeal is filed (Section 2(1) of the Court Fees Act). By way of exception, in non-contentious proceedings, a decision fee (Entscheidungsgebühr) rather than a claim fee (Klagegebühr) is sometimes payable.
Fixed costs in criminal proceedings
Fixed costs for litigants in criminal proceedings
A fee has to be paid under item 13 of the Court Fees Act only in the case of a private prosecution.
Stage of the criminal proceeding where fixed costs must be paid
Fixed costs must be paid at the beginning of the proceedings.
Fixed costs in constitutional proceedings
Fixed costs for litigants in constitutional proceedings
Under Section 17a(1) of the Constitutional Court Act (Verfassungsgerichtshofgesetz — VfGG), the fee is €220.
Stage of the constitutional proceedings where fixed costs must be paid
Fixed costs must be paid at the beginning of the proceedings.
Prior information to be provided by legal representatives
Rights and obligations of the parties
In general terms, the lawyer is under an obligation to inform his or her client how the fees will be calculated and what costs the client can expect to incur. Section 50(2) of the Guidelines on the Exercise of the Profession of Lawyer and the Supervision of Lawyers’ Obligations (Richtlinien für die Ausübung des Rechtsanwaltsberufs und für die Überwachung der Pflichten des Rechtsanwalts — RL-BA) recommends that when receiving instructions on a new case the lawyer should inform the client of the basis on which the fee will be charged and of the lawyer’s entitlement to interim payments.
Unless a flat-rate fee has been agreed, the client is entitled, at reasonable intervals, to request an interim statement of account or a statement of services already rendered, or, where a time-based fee has been agreed, a statement of time already spent.
At the time a lawyer is retained an agreement should be concluded covering the commencement and frequency of charging.
Cost sources — legal bases
Where can I find information on cost sources in Austria?
The statutory rules on liability for costs in contentious civil proceedings (including commercial matters) can be found in Sections 40-55 of the Code of Civil Procedure. In family matters, in particular divorce by mutual consent, if there are any disputes over custody, access rights or maintenance claims they are dealt with in non-contentious proceedings. Non‑contentious proceedings are subject to separate rules on liability for costs. The general rules are set out in Section 78 of the Non‑contentious Proceedings Act (Außerstreitgesetz — AußStrG). Exceptions to these general rules apply, inter alia, in proceedings relating to custody and access disputes and proceedings concerning maintenance claims for minors. Costs in criminal proceedings are regulated by Sections 380–395 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Strafprozessordnung — StPO).
An outline of the fees lawyers are entitled to charge is given in an online information leaflet on the homepage of the Austrian Bar (Österreichischer Rechtsanwaltskammertag). General information can also be obtained via the homepage of the HELP service for citizens by following the links ‘Leben in Österreich’ >, Zivilrecht’ > ‘Zivilverfahren’ [Living in Austria > Civil Law > Civil Procedure].
General information on court fees is available free from the website of the HELP service for citizens. The texts of laws (such as the Court Fees Act and the rules on scales of fees) are available free from the Legal Information System of the Republic of Austria (Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes — RIS) on the homepage of the Federal Chancellor’s Office.
In what languages can I obtain information on cost sources in Austria?
Where can I find information on mediation?
A list of mediators (maintained by the Ministry of Justice) is available to the general public from a dedicated webpage.
With regard to restorative justice in criminal proceedings, information on defendant-victim mediation is available on the NEUSTART website (also in English).
Where can I find additional information on costs?
Online information on legal costs
General information on the Austrian judicial system, legal costs and the Federal Ministry of Justice can be found on the Austrian Justice website and on the website of the HELP service, which provides general, reader-friendly information.
The Legal Information System of the Republic of Austria gives full texts of the following laws:
- the Court Fees Act (Gerichtsgebührengesetz — GGG)
- the Fees Entitlement Act (Gebührenanspruchsgesetz — GebAG)
- the Lawyers Code (Rechtsanwaltsordnung — RAO)
- the Lawyers’ Scales of Fees Act (Rechtsanwaltstarifgesetz — RATG)
The text of the General Fee Criteria for Lawyers (Allgemeine Honorar-Kriterien für Rechtsanwälte — AHK) is accessible from the portal of the Austrian Bar.
Where can I find information on the average length of time that different procedures take?
For this type of information please contact the Austrian Ministry of Justice directly.
Where can I find information on the average aggregate cost for a particular proceeding?
Court fees payable for each kind of proceeding are established in advance ( by the Court Fees Act). They may change if the value of the claim goes up or down.
The costs to be paid by the losing party to the winning party in civil proceedings (lawyers’ fees, experts’ fees, translation costs) are determined by the court. The court makes its order on the basis of the Lawyers’ Scales of Fees Act (for lawyers’ fees) and the Fees Entitlement Act (experts’ and interpreters’ fees). The costs are based largely on the level of expenses involved and the time spent. A specific figure cannot be given in advance.
In principle, the fee paid by the client to the lawyer may be freely agreed upon between them.
Value Added Tax
Where can I find information on VAT? What are the applicable rates?
Lawyers’ services are subject to value added tax. It amounts to 20 % in Austria. Like other expenses, this must be paid to the lawyer separately, as provided in Section 16 of the Lawyers’ Scales of Fees Act and Section 17 of the General Fee Criteria. The scales of fees set out in the Lawyers’ Scales of Fees Act and the General Fee Criteria do not include value added tax.
Applicable income threshold in the area of civil justice
Eligibility for legal aid (Verfahrenshilfe) is not based on a statutory income threshold. In civil proceedings (and in commercial matters), legal aid is governed by the Code of Civil Procedure. The provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure apply mutatis mutandis in non‑contentious proceedings. Decisions to grant legal aid are taken by the court hearing the case at first instance.
Legal aid must be granted to a party if his or her income, financial circumstances and maintenance obligations are such that he or she cannot afford the cost of legal proceedings without encroaching on the level of resources (notwendiger Unterhalt) necessary to maintain a modest standard of living. In addition, the proceedings must not appear manifestly vexatious or devoid of any prospects of success. The court decides which of the benefits listed below are to be granted in each individual case.
In Austria, legal aid may comprise:
- temporary exemption from payment of court fees, fees of witnesses, experts and interpreters or translators, the cost of any necessary public announcements, the costs of a trustee and any disbursements incurred by the representative or lawyer designated by the court;
- representation by a lawyer.
Within three years after the proceedings have been concluded parties in receipt of legal aid may be required to repay the aid, in whole or in part, if their financial position changes and they are now in a position to make those payments without encroaching on their necessary level of resources.
Applicable income threshold for defendants and victims in the area of criminal justice
No fixed financial threshold applies to determine whether a defendant or victim qualifies for legal aid. Maintenance above the minimum living wage and below an appropriate maintenance level are the guiding criteria.
The minimum living wage is regularly re-evaluated and the current rate is published on the Austrian Justice website.
Conditions attached to the granting of legal aid to victims
Where there is no entitlement to judicial assistance (Prozessbegleitung) under Section 66(2) of the Austrian Code of Criminal Procedure, a civil claimant is entitled to legal aid (Verfahrenshilfe) if
- he or she cannot afford representation by counsel without encroaching on his or her necessary level of resources (see the observations on the necessary level of resources above), and
- representation by counsel is in the interests of the administration of justice, and especially in the interests of proper enforcement of claims in order to avoid separate civil proceedings later.
Conditions attached to the granting of legal aid to defendants
Aside from the financial conditions, legal aid must be in the interests of the administration of justice, and especially in the interests of proper defence.
Assignment of defence counsel is in any event considered to be in the interests of the administration of justice where
there is a case of imperative defence (notwendige Verteidigung) under Section 61(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure (see below),
- if the defendant is blind, deaf, dumb, or handicapped in some other way or does not have sufficient knowledge of the language used by the court;
- in appeal proceedings;
- if the case involves complex factual and legal circumstances.
In cases of imperative defence a defendant must be represented by defence counsel. Section 61(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure gives an exhaustive list of the cases where defence is imperative:
- for the time the defendant is held in pre-trial detention;
- throughout proceedings for confinement in an institution for mentally abnormal offenders;
- in court proceedings for confinement in an institution for addicted offenders in need of rehabilitation or in an institution for dangerous re‑offenders;
- in court proceedings before a regional court when it is sitting with lay assessors or a jury;
- in court proceedings before a regional court when a single judge is sitting, if the sentence which may be imposed amounts to more than three years’ imprisonment, except in the cases of burglary referred to in Section 129(1)–(3) of the Criminal Code and receiving stolen goods referred to in Section 164(4) of the Criminal Code;
- in an appeal against a judgment of a court sitting with lay assessors or a jury;
- for the lodging of an application for a re‑trial and any public hearing on the application.
Cost-free court proceedings
In order to protect the rights of a victim in criminal proceedings, psycho-social assistance (psychosoziale Prozessbegleitung) or judicial assistance (juristische Prozessbegleitung) are available free of charge to victims of violent acts, dangerous threats or sexual offences, and the spouse, life companion, relative in the direct line, brother or sister of a person whose death may have been caused by a criminal offence, or other relatives who were witnesses to the criminal offence. Psycho-social assistance covers the preparation of the victim for the proceedings and the emotional burden caused by the proceedings. Psycho‑social or judicial assistance is provided by victim support organisations contracted by the Ministry of Justice under Section 66(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
In non-contentious proceedings, no fees are payable for the appointment of a trustee (Sachverwalter) or in custody and access proceedings. Nor are any fees due for proceedings under the Institutional Confinement Act (Unterbringungsgesetz) or the Residential Care Act (Heimaufenthaltsgesetz). Where a party has a low income and limited assets, legal aid may be granted in the form of provisional exemption from fees. The scale of the exemption granted depends on the application and is at the court’s discretion.
When does the losing party have to pay the winning party’s costs?
Costs in civil proceedings (including commercial cases) are governed by the Code of Civil Procedure. This provides that initially each party must pay the costs incurred proportionally to their involvement in the proceedings. When the court decides the case it makes an order as to costs. The principle is that costs are awarded to the successful party. A party who loses a dispute in every respect must compensate the other party for all the fees and costs that were necessary for the proper prosecution or defence of the case. If the parties have succeeded in some of their claims and failed in others, the costs must be offset against each other or shared proportionately.
Departure from the principle that costs are awarded to the successful party is justified in certain cases on grounds of equity:
- in the case of defeat on a relatively minor point, if the part of the action that is dismissed has occasioned no particular costs;
- if the level of claim is determined by experts, or is at the court’s discretion, and where costs are to be offset against each other;
- if the defendant’s conduct has given no cause for bringing the action and he or she has acknowledged the claim at the first opportunity; and
- if one of the parties has occasioned the automatic cancellation of the proceedings or a declaration of nullity of the proceedings, that party may be required to pay the full costs.
Family law matters (maintenance, access rights and custody proceedings and divorce by mutual consent) are dealt with in non-contentious proceedings. The general rules on costs in non-contentious proceedings can be found in Section 78 of the Non-contentious Proceedings Act. But there are exceptions for many kinds of proceedings. Here, too, the principle applies that costs should be awarded to the successful party but may be awarded differently on grounds of equity. The grounds are far more extensive than those under the Code of Civil Procedure. If no compensation is claimed, out-of-pocket expenses (e.g. expert’s fees) must be paid in proportion to the share in the case, and if that cannot be determined they must be shared equally.
Details for the various types of proceeding (maintenance, access rights and custody proceedings and divorce):
- As regards divorce proceedings, a distinction must be made between contested divorce and divorce by mutual consent.
Special provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure apply to contested divorces. If neither party is found to be at fault, costs must be mutually offset. If the ground for divorce is breakdown (Zerrüttung) of the marriage, and if the judgment contains a ruling on responsibility for the breakdown, the guilty party must pay the other’s costs.
Divorce by mutual consent is handled in non-contentious proceedings, like the other two kinds of family law proceedings. The spouses submit two identical applications to the court, and since there are no adversarial proceedings there is no award of costs. Out-of-pocket expenses must be borne equally by the parties.
- Custody and access proceedings are also non-contentious proceedings. By virtue of an exemption clause (Section 107(3) of the Non‑contentious Proceedings Act), no costs are awarded in custody and access proceedings.
- A further exemption clause (Section 101(2) of the Non‑contentious Proceedings Act ) provides that no costs are to be awarded in proceedings concerning maintenance claims for children who are still minors.
In criminal proceedings in principle every person who is represented by defence counsel or another representative has to bear the costs himself or herself, even if the lawyer was appointed by the court (Section 393(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure).
A judgment convicting the defendant must also order the defendant to pay the costs of the criminal proceedings (Section 389(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure). The following costs may be due under Section 381(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure:
- a flat‑rate fee in respect of costs of the proceedings not further detailed below, including the costs of investigation and of steps ordered by the public prosecutor or by the court, which Section 381(3) limits to the following maximum amounts: in proceedings before the regional court sitting with a jury, from €500 to €10 000; in proceedings before the regional court sitting with lay assessors, from €250 to €5 000; in proceedings before the regional court sitting with a single judge, from €150 to €3 000; and in proceedings before the district court, €50 to €1 000;
- expert’s fees and in general also any interpreter’s fees;
- costs for information, reports or opinions provided by public authorities;
- costs for the transport of the defendant or witnesses from abroad;
- costs caused by a freezing order and costs for information on bank accounts, for the seizure of letters, for information on telecommunication data, and for the interception of telecommunication;
- costs relating to the enforcement of the sentence, excluding costs relating to imprisonment;
- court fees relating to the proceedings;
- costs of defence counsel or other representatives;
- a flat‑rate fee in respect of costs for psycho-social or judicial assistance given to the victim, up to €1 000.
With the exception of the costs listed under the third, seventh, eighth and ninth points above, these costs are advanced by the federal authorities. When deciding on the flat‑rate fees under the ninth point, Section 381(1)(9), the court takes account of the economic capacity of the person liable. Costs for the services of an interpreter do not have to be repaid if they were necessary because the defendant could not communicate in court owing to insufficient knowledge of the language or as a result of a handicap.
Section 391(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, however, provides that the costs of the criminal proceedings are to be recovered from the convicted person only provided this does not endanger the resources necessary for the convicted person to maintain a modest standard of living or their ability to pay compensation for the damage caused. If the costs cannot be recovered because the convicted person’s lack of resources, the court may declare the costs unrecoverable. If the court finds that the costs will become recoverable in the future, but are not recoverable for the time being, the economic capacity of the person concerned has to be re-examined after a certain period. The statutory limitation period applicable to the recovery of costs is five years after the delivery of the final decision in the proceedings. If the court decides that the convicted person has to bear the costs of the proceedings, and it later appears that he or she is not able to pay, the authorities responsible for recovering the costs may extend the payment deadline, permit payment by instalments, or reduce the costs.
If the convicted person is obliged by the judgment of the criminal court to pay at least partial compensation to a civil claimant, he or she also has to reimburse the costs incurred by the civil claimant in the criminal proceedings.
Under Section 393a of the Code of Criminal Procedure, a defendant who is acquitted may request a contribution from the federal authorities to his or her defence counsel’s costs. This covers necessary cash expenditure actually incurred and a flat‑rate fee in respect of defence counsel’s costs. The flat‑rate fee is determined in the light of the extent and complexity of the defence and the scope of the necessary and proper services provided by the lawyer, and may not exceed the following ceilings: in proceedings before the regional court sitting with a jury, €5 000; in proceedings before the regional court sitting with lay assessors, €2 500; in proceedings before the regional court with one judge sitting, €1 250; and in proceedings before the district court, €450.
Where criminal proceedings are initiated by a private prosecution or on the application of a civil claimant under Section 72 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, and do not lead to a conviction, the person bringing the private prosecution or the civil claimant is obliged to pay all costs caused by the bringing or continuation of the action. If the criminal proceedings end with a settlement (Diversion, Sections 198 to 209 of the Code of Criminal Procedure), the civil claimant does not have to pay the costs.
In contentious civil proceedings (including commercial cases), expert’s fees are awarded in proportion to the extent of a party’s success or failure (Section 43(1) of the Code of Civil Procedure).
In contested divorce proceedings where the judgment makes no ruling on responsibility, out-of-pocket expenses must be mutually offset. If one party has paid more than half of the cash outlay, the other must refund the excess. But if one spouse is found to be at fault, that party must reimburse the other party’s expert’s fees.
In proceedings for divorce by mutual consent, custody and access proceedings, and proceedings concerning maintenance claims for children who are still minors, any expert’s fees initially paid out of official funds must be reimbursed to the court by the parties who occasioned them or in whose interests the official action was taken. If several persons are obliged to reimburse the costs, they are jointly liable (Section 1(5) of the Court Payments Act (Gerichtliches Einbringungsgesetz — GEG) in conjunction with Section 2(1) of the same Act).
The level of experts’ fees is governed by the Fees Entitlement Act, and in each specific case depends essentially on the content and scope of the report requested by the court.
In criminal proceedings, experts’ fees form part of the court costs (Section 381(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure) which according to Section 389(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure must be borne by the convicted person. Experts’ fees are determined by the court or the public prosecutor and are paid by the federal authorities.
Translators’ and interpreters’ fees
The explanation given above also applies to translators’ and interpreters’ fees.
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Last update: 16/05/2018