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Ordinary courts - Czech Republic

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The court structure in the Czech Republic comprises 89 district courts, eight regional courts, and the Supreme Court.


Ordinary courts — introduction

Jurisdiction in civil matters

Judicial in civil matters is carried out by the district courts, regional courts, supreme courts and the Supreme Court of the Czech Republic.

Courts of first instance

District courts hear and determine disputes and other legal matters arising from civil, labour, family and business relationships whenever the law has not been laid down by law for the consideration and decision of the cases and the jurisdiction of other courts.

Other items which are not of a private nature (e.g. on the appointment and exclusion of arbitrators, on the termination of an arbitration award, etc.) shall be heard and determined by the district courts in civil or commercial proceedings, where the law so provides.

In matters falling within the jurisdiction of a district court, a judge is normally sitting with a judge.

The employment and other matters referred to in the law are dealt with by a Trial Chamber consisting of a judge and two sitting judges.

Regional courts decide as courts of first instance in cases and disputes defined in Section 9 (2) and Section 9a of the Code of Civil Procedure.

Acting before a regional court as a court of first instance, acting as a court of first instance, acting by a single judge; a Chamber consisting of the Chairperson of a Chamber and 2 Judges shall act and rule at first instance where this is provided for in the law.

The Supreme Court decides at first instance on the basis of Section 51 of Act No 91/2012 on private international law. In those circumstances, the Supreme Court recognises final foreign decisions.

The Supreme Court shall act in chambers or large panels of colleges.

Second degree

In cases where district courts hear cases like first instance courts, regional courts are the courts of second instance.

Where cases are heard by regional courts as courts of first instance, the appeal courts are the supreme courts.

The High Court shall rule in chambers composed of the President of a Chamber and 2 Judges, subject to specific provisions to the contrary.

Legal databases

The Czech legislation is available on the official portal of the Link opens in new windowCzech government’s portal (in Czech only).

Is access to the legal database free of charge?

Yes, only this portal provides legislative texts free.

Jurisdiction in criminal matters

The judiciary in criminal matters is carried out by the district courts, regional courts, supreme courts and the Supreme Court of the Czech Republic.

Courts of first instance

The proceedings at first instance take place if Act No 141/1961 on criminal proceedings does not provide for any other court, the district court.

In criminal proceedings before a court, a chamber or a judge decides; the President of a Chamber or a single Judge shall decide solely where this is expressly provided for by law. The Chambers of the District Court are composed of the President of the Chamber and 2 seated. The single Judge shall be the President of the Chamber or Judge. The presiding judge may be a judge only.

The Krajský soud takes the place at first instance in proceedings on criminal offences in so far as the law provides for a sentence of imprisonment the lower limit of which is at least five years or if it is punishable by an exceptional penalty. As regards the offences referred to in Paragraph 17 (1) of the Law on criminal proceedings, the Regional Court also takes action at first instance, even if the lower limit of the penalty is lower.

The Regional Court decides in chambers. They shall rule on cases provided for in the laws on proceedings before the courts.

The chambers of the regional court consist of:

  1. the President of the Chamber and 2 members sitting as courts of first instance in criminal matters,
  2. the President of the Chamber and 2 judges in other cases.

The single Judge shall be the President of the Chamber or Judge. The presiding judge may be a judge only.

Second degree

An appeal against a judgment of the District Court is decided on by the superior Regional Court. An appeal against a judgment of the Regional Court as court in the first instance is decided on by the superior High Court.

The High Court shall rule in chambers composed of the President of a Chamber and 2 Judges, subject to specific provisions to the contrary.

Jurisdiction in administrative cases

The role of the judiciary in administrative matters is to protect the subjective public rights of natural and legal persons.

Administrative courts have this role. They are specialised chambers within the system of regional courts, which operate as administrative courts of first instance.

The administrative courts shall be composed of: the President of the Regional Court, Vice-Presidents, Judges. The individual cases are discussed in a Chamber of three Judges.

In the administrative judiciary, courts shall adjudicate on

  1. actions brought against public-administration decisions issued by an executive body, a local or regional government body, or by a natural or legal person or other body entrusted to adjudicate on the rights and obligations of natural and legal persons in public administration (hereinafter referred to as ‘administrative body’);
  2. protection against the inactivity of an administrative authority,
  3. protection against unlawful intervention by an administrative authority,
  4. actions on competence.
  5. in electoral matters and for local or regional referendums;
  6. political parties and political movements,
  7. on the revocation of a measure of a general nature or any part thereof that is contrary to the law
  8. in cases of disciplinary liability of judges, office holders, prosecutors and bailiffs,
  9. in cases of certain rules of professional conduct.

The Supreme Administrative Court shall be the administrative court of last instance and shall consist of the President of the Supreme Administrative Court, Vice-Presidents and Judges. The case is usually dealt with by a panel of three judges.

In addition to the examination of the appeals, the Supreme Administrative Court shall decide on the dissolution of a political party or of a political movement, the suspension or reresumption of their activities, on jurisdiction and on jurisdiction and on the cancellation of measures of a general nature or on a part of it. Further substantive jurisdiction of the Supreme Administrative Court is laid down in specific laws.

More details on the website of the European Judicial Atlas in Civil — SoS and Tribunals in the Czech Republic. Link opens in new windowhttps://portal.justice.cz/Justice2/MS/ms.aspx?j=33&o=23&k=5840&d=184430

More information can be found on the website: Link opens in new windowSupreme Administrative Court.

Related links

Link opens in new windowSystem of courts


This is a machine translated version of the content. The owner of this page accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the quality of this machine translated text.

Last update: 31/10/2019