You are considered to be the victim of a crime if you have suffered harm of any kind, including physical injury, mental harm, emotional distress or financial loss, as a result of an incident that constitutes a crime under the applicable national legislation. Family members of someone who has died as a result of a crime and who have suffered harm as a result of that person’s death are also considered to be crime victims.
As a victim of a crime, you have certain legal rights before, during and after the criminal proceedings.
The stages of criminal proceedings in Romania are: prosecution, preliminary chamber, trial and enforcement of the criminal decisions that have become final. During the criminal investigation, the criminal investigation bodies, under the supervision of the public prosecutor, investigate the case, gathering evidence in order to find the offender. At the end of the criminal investigation, the police refer the case to the public prosecutor’s office, together with all the data and evidence collected in the file. After receiving the file, the case prosecutor examines the case and decides whether it is to proceed to trial, or whether the file should be closed.
Once the case comes before the court, the panel of judges examines the facts and hears the persons involved in order to establish the guilt of the accused. Once guilt has been established, the offender receives a sentence. If the court considers that the accused is not guilty, then he or she is released.
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