Specialised courts - Estonia
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This section provides you with information on the administrative and specialised courts in the Estonian court system.
The Estonian Constitution states that the creation of specialised courts with specific jurisdiction may be provided by law. The formation of emergency courts is prohibited.
No specialised courts have been created in Estonia.
The Constitutional Court
The Supreme Court simultaneously performs the functions of the court of final appeal and the court of constitutional review.
As the court of constitutional review, the Supreme Court:
- adjudicates requests to verify that legislation of general application or a refusal to issue such legislation is in conformity with the Constitution;
- adjudicates requests to verify the conformity of international agreements with the Constitution;
- adjudicates requests for an opinion on the interpretation of the Constitution in conjunction with European Union law;
- adjudicates requests for and complaints against resolutions of the Estonian Parliament, the Board of the Parliament and the President of the Republic;
- adjudicates requests to declare a Member of Parliament, the President of the Republic, the Chancellor of Justice or the Auditor-General incapable of performing his or her duties for an extended period;
- adjudicates requests to terminate the authority of a Member of Parliament;
- decides on the granting of consent to the President of the Riigikogu, acting as President of the Republic, to call extraordinary elections to the Riigikogu or to refuse to promulgate an Act;
- adjudicates requests to terminate the activities of a political party;
- adjudicates complaints and protests against acts or acts taken by the electoral operator or the selection board.
No individual may file a request for a constitutional review.
Contact details for the Supreme Court may be found on the Supreme Court website.
Constitutional review is regulated by the Constitutional Review Court Procedure Act.
Administrative courts as courts of first instance hear administrative cases. In Estonia, they act as independent judicial authorities only in first instance.
Administrative court rulings are reviewed by district courts, as courts of second instance, on the basis of appeals against those rulings.
The jurisdiction of the administrative courts, the procedure for filing an action with an administrative court and the rules for administrative proceedings are laid down in the Code of Administrative Court Procedure.
In Estonia there are two administrative courts: tallinn Administrative Court and Tartu Administrative Court.
The administrative courts are divided into courthouses.
Tallinn Administrative Court is comprised of two courthouses:
- Tallinn Courthouse
- Pärnu Courthouse
Tartu Administrative Court is comprised of two courthouses:
- Tartu Courthouse
- Jõhvi Courthouse
In Estonia there are two district courts acting as courts of second instance.
- Tallinn District Court
- Tartu District Court
Contact details for the courts may be found on the Courts website. Access to the contact details is free of charge.
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Last update: 16/09/2019