There are several special courts and tribunals in Poland.
Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy)
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority. It exercises judicial supervision over the decisions of all other courts, ensuring consistency of legal interpretation and judicial practice.
The Supreme Court is not a common court. It reviews cases in cassation and other appeals against court judgements; and adopts resolutions aimed at clarifying legal provisions that raise doubts or the application of which causes disparities in judicial decision making. It also adopts resolutions settling legal questions referred to it in connection with specific cases.
The Polish Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy) publishes its decisions, with its reasoning, on its website, Polish Supreme Court, which is also available in English.
Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunał Konstytucyjny)
In the Polish legal system, the Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunał Konstytucyjny) is not regarded as a common court.
The Constitutional Tribunal rules:
- On the constitutionality of national legislation and international agreements
- On the compliance of national legislation with ratified international agreements whose ratification is required prior to approval by the parliament
- On the compliance with the Constitution of legal regulations issued by central state authorities, ratified international agreements and legislative Acts
- On the constitutionality of the objectives or activities of political parties
- On constitutional complaints.
All of its decisions are made public, together with its reasoning, on the website of the Constitutional Court of Poland, which is also available in English.
Tribunal of State (Trybunał Stanu)
The Tribunal of State (Trybunał Stanu) adjudicates cases in which people that occupy (or have occupied) the highest state positions are charged with violating the Constitution or other legislative Acts.
You can find more information on the website of the Polish Tribunal of the State.
The system of administrative courts includes the High Administrative Court (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) and regional administrative courts – one per voivodeship or province (wojewódzkie sądy administracyjne).
The High Administrative Court:
- Rules on whether the resolutions of local government bodies, or the regulatory acts of provincial authorities of the state administration (terenowe organy administracji publicznej), comply with the law
- Rules on complaints against administrative decisions; on decisions issued in administrative proceedings in response to complaints (or concludes such proceedings); and on decisions that may be appealed based on the merits of a case
- Adjudicates on certain resolutions of municipal authorities or associations of such authorities
- Gives replies on legal questions submitted for its consideration by local government appellate bodies.
The Supreme Administrative Court has published all its decisions, together with its reasoning, since 1st October 2007. Earlier decisions are still being added to the database. The Court’s website is available only in Polish.
The Supreme Administrative Court (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) publishes its decisions, with its reasoning, on its website.
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